Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics - Most Popular Articles

Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics is a leading journal that focuses specifically on traumatic injuries to give you hands-on on coverage of a fast-growing field. You'll get articles that cover everything from the nature of injury to the effects of new drug therapies; everything from recommendations for more effective surgical approaches to the latest laboratory findings. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics is the official journal of the: Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America

imageBackground: Crouch gait is a frequent gait abnormality observed in children with cerebral palsy. Distal femoral extension osteotomy (DFEO) with the tightening of the extensor mechanism is a common treatment strategy to address the pathologic knee flexion contracture and patella alta. The goal of this study was to review the results of a patellar tendon imbrication (PTI) strategy to address quadriceps insufficiency in the setting of children undergoing DFEO. Methods: After institutional review board approval, all patients with crouch gait treated at a single institution with DFEO and PTI were identified. Clinical, radiographic, and instrumented gait analysis data were analyzed preoperatively and at 1 year following surgery. Results: Twenty-eight patients (54 extremities) with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy and crouch gait were included. Significant improvements were appreciated in the degree of knee flexion contracture, quadriceps strength, knee extensor lag, and popliteal angle (P
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Many patients with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP) and severe scoliosis develop hip displacement, whereas others do not. We investigated demographic characteristics, risk factors for CP, and imaging findings associated with nondisplaced hips in patients with CP and severe scoliosis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed records of 229 patients with spastic quadriplegic CP and severe scoliosis who presented for treatment at our US academic tertiary care hospital between August 2005 and September 2015. Demographic characteristics, risk factors for CP, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were documented. Patients were classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level 4 or higher, with 58% at GMFCS level 5.3. Displaced hips (n=181 patients) were defined as a migration percentage of ≥30% or previous surgery for hip displacement/adductor contractures. Patients who did not meet these criteria were classified as nondisplaced (n=48 patients). We used univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression to determine associations between patient factors and hip displacement (alpha=0.05). Results: Patients born at term (≥37 wk) had 2.5 times the odds [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-5.0] of having nondisplaced hips compared with patients born prematurely. Females had 2.0 times the odds (95% CI: 1.0-3.9) of having nondisplaced hips compared with males. Patients with normal brain MRI findings had 9.6 times the odds (95% CI: 2.3-41) of having nondisplaced hips compared with patients with abnormal findings. Hip displacement was not associated with race (P>0.05). Conclusions: Gestational age 37 weeks or above, female sex, and normal brain MRI findings are independently associated with nondisplaced hips in patients with spastic quadriplegic CP and severe scoliosis. These findings direct attention to characteristics that may place patients at greater risk of displacement. Future work may influence preventative screening practices and improve patient counseling regarding the risk of hip displacement. Level of Evidence: Level III—retrospective comparative study.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Operative treatment of medial epicondyle fractures can be performed in either a supine or prone position. In the supine position, fracture visualization is sometimes difficult due to the posterior position of the medial epicondyle. However, the prone position requires extensive patient repositioning but may improve visualization. The purpose of this study was to compare the results and complications between the supine and prone position when treating medial epicondyle fractures. Methods: In a retrospective chart review, patients below 18 who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of an acute medial epicondyle fracture from January 2011 to August 2019 were identified. Patients with
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageIntroduction: Traditionally, midshaft clavicular fractures in adolescents are treated nonoperatively. In later years, a trend toward operative treatment can be observed. Documentation of the benefit of surgery in this group is scarce. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term patient reported functional outcomes and complications for patients treated operatively and nonoperatively for displaced midshaft clavicular fractures. Using the same outcomes we also compared the operative methods. Methods: One hundred nine adolescents aged 12 to 18 years sustaining displaced midshaft clavicular fractures in the period 2010 to 2016 were identified in our computerized files. Sixty-one were treated nonoperatively, 48 operatively (22 plate and 26 intramedullary nail). Their radiographs and patient journals were examined for fracture classification, wound infection, sensory affection, surgery duration, hardware removal, and nonunion (n=109). Long-term function, pain, and satisfaction were measured with Quick Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH), Oxford Shoulder Score and Visual Analogue Scale (n=87). Results: Operative treatment: We could find no difference in functional score outcomes. The main outcome QuickDASH was excellent in both groups (median 0 nail vs. 2.26 plate). Surgery duration was shorter with intramedullary nail. We found 2 infections and 2 sensory affections in the plate group, and 1 infection and 1 sensory affection in the intramedullary nail group. There were 2 refractures in the nail group. Operative versus nonoperative treatment: there were no differences in functional outcomes between the operative and nonoperative groups. For the main outcome QuickDASH both groups scored excellently (median 1.12 operative vs. 0 nonoperative). The nonoperative group was more satisfied with the cosmetic result. There was 1 nonunion in the nonoperative group that later was operated. Conclusions: Adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with displaced midshaft clavicular fractures show good long-term functional results after plate fixation, intramedullary nail, and nonoperative treatment. No additional benefit is demonstrated for surgery in our material. Nonoperatively treated patients are more satisfied with the cosmetic results. Little difference is seen between the operative methods in our study. We conclude that surgery should rarely be the choice of treatment for displaced midshaft clavicular fractures in adolescents. Level of Evidence: Level III study—retrospective comparative study.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Current risks and practices in medical prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after major elective lower extremity surgeries such as pelvic osteotomies have not been well-defined in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate population rates of VTE in adolescents undergoing pelvic osteotomies, and (2) characterize current practices on types of VTE prophylaxis being utilized after pelvic osteotomies. Methods: The study evaluated the Pediatric Health Information System database between October 1, 2015 and January 1, 2020 for patients between 10 and 18 years of age meeting selected ICD-10 procedure and diagnosis codes relating to pelvic osteotomies. The rate of VTE was calculated within 90 days of index procedure. Types of pharmacologic prophylaxis were characterized. Continuous variables were compared with 2-sample t tests; proportions and categorical variables were compared with Fisher exact or χ2 tests, all with 2-tailed significance 0.05). Overall, 52.0% received at least one form of pharmacologic prophylaxis postoperatively. The most common pharmacologic prophylaxis used was aspirin (47.6%), of which 64.4% received 81 mg dosing. There was no difference in VTE rates in those with or without prophylaxis (0.52% vs. 0.70%, P=0.75). However, those prescribed prophylaxis were significantly older (15.2±2.3 vs. 13.6±2.4 y, P
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Synthetic casting materials have been used as alternatives to plaster of Paris (POP) in the treatment of clubfoot using the Ponseti method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of children with idiopathic clubfoot managed by the Ponseti method using POP versus semirigid fiberglass (SRF). Methods: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for all newborns with idiopathic clubfoot who underwent manipulation and casting by the Ponseti technique between January 2013 and December 2016 at 2 different institutions. In all, 136 consecutive clubfeet were included, of which 68 underwent casting with POP (Group A), and 68 were casted using SRF (Group B). Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test for categorical variables, and the unpaired t test for quantitative parameters. Results: Mean age at time of first cast was 10 days (range, 3 to 21 d). Mean Pirani score at start of treatment was 4.6 and 4.5 in Groups A and B, respectively. Mean number of casts for each patient in Group A was 5.2 against 4.2 in patients in Group B. Mean follow-up was 63.8 months (range, 42 to 88 mo). In each group, 4 cases of relapse were reported (2.9%). No complications related to cast phase or brace phase were recorded. Shorter duration of cast treatment was recorded in Group B. Conclusions: Despite its higher cost and slightly lower moldability, the use of SRF in experienced hands showed comparable results in idiopathic clubfeet treated by the Ponseti technique. Level of Evidence: Level III.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageBackground: One of the most common pediatric fractures is a midshaft both bone forearm fracture. The preferred nonoperative treatment is cast immobilization for 6 to 8 weeks; however, 4% to 8% refracture within 6 months. There are no comparative studies evaluating the efficacy of bracing after cast immobilization. We hypothesized that children treated with prolonged functional bracing would have a lower rate of refracture than casting alone or short-term bracing. Methods: This is a retrospective review of children younger than 15 years of age treated nonoperatively following radius and ulnar shaft fractures treated at 3 tertiary pediatric hospitals. We excluded distal radius/ulna fractures, isolated fractures of the radius/ulna, and fractures near the elbow. Logistic regression analysis on casting plus functional bracing was run to determine if age, translation, or the number of days in brace were associated with refracture. The incidence of refracture was compared between groups. Results: A total of 1549 patients were screened and 426 were included in the study [111 casting only (CO), 259 casting plus functional brace
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Worldwide a wide variation exists in duration of Pavlik harness treatment for infants up to 6 months with stable developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether shortening the time to first routine follow-up ultrasound after initiation of Pavlik harness treatment would reduce treatment duration and whether this influenced radiologic outcome at 1 year of age. Furthermore, predictors of higher acetabular index (AI) at 1 year of age were investigated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in infants with stable DDH (Graf IIb and IIc) diagnosed and treated between 2015 and 2017. Two groups were identified: first routine follow-up ultrasound at 12 weeks after Pavlik harness initiation (group I) and first routine follow-up ultrasound at 6 weeks after Pavlik harness initiation (group II). In both groups, treatment was continued until repeat ultrasound measurements (every 6 wk) showed a normalized hip. Radiologic outcome at 1 year of age was defined as residual dysplasia measured on an anteroposterior hip radiograph according to the Tönnis table. Results: A total of 222 infants were included. The median time of Pavlik harness treatment was 12 weeks (interquartile range, 11.9 to 12.3) in group I compared with 6.1 weeks (interquartile range, 6.0 to 7.5) in group II (P
Posted: April 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageBackground: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of clinical screening examination in newborns with dislocated hips compared with ultrasound scan (USS). Methods: Newborns, up to 3 months of age, with confirmed hip dislocations on USS were prospectively enrolled in a multinational observational study. Data from 2010 to 2016 were reviewed to determine pretreatment clinical examination findings of the treating orthopaedic surgeon as well as baseline ultrasound indices of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). All infants had been referred to specialist centres with expertise in DDH, due to abnormal birth examination or risk factor. Results: The median age of the study population was 2.3 weeks and 84% of patients were female. Of the total 515 USS-confirmed dislocated hips included in the study, 71 (13.8%) were incorrectly felt to be reduced on clinical examination by the treating orthopaedist (P
Posted: September 1, 2020, 12:00 am
imageIntroduction: The ability for teams to work together in a coordinated manner may be where the greatest improvements in health care occur in the next generation. To perform at the highest level there are several key principles that all teams must have no matter what playing field they are on, including health care. Methods: Several resources were used to identify the challenges we face in health care with respect to the delivery of quality care, improving outcomes and decreasing complications. A search of the lay press and scientific literature was evaluated to identify those key elements that lead to improvements in team performance. In addition, personal observations were accumulated with time and examples of strategies used at home institutions were identified. Results: The teams in our pediatric orthopaedic practices are many and include those in the clinic, the operating room, research, and our administrative office. The Institute of Medicine, in their influential article in 1999, defined the alarming rates of complications/harm occurring in the US health care system. In response, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Department of Defense (DOD) collaborated to create the Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) in 2006. This was implemented in military facilities and later civilian hospital settings with varied success in civilian hospital settings. Discussion: They defined key principles based around team structure, communication, leadership, situation monitoring, and mutual support. Other important foundational attributes of a successful team include identifying the vision of the team, hiring top-talent in the form of hard and soft skills, having open communication, being goal-focused, practicing accountability, and having an organized team. We can look to excellent examples in medicine, business, and sports to see where and how high-functioning teams have existed and to learn from them to implement similar successful teams. Conclusions: Team performance is a function of talented members who share a common vision, who have the opportunity to voice their thoughts/opinions, and have the ability to be accountable to each other. Surgeons need to lead by example, and provide each member of the team an opportunity to contribute in a meaningful way which ultimately will improve the lives of the patients we are honored to care for.
Posted: July 1, 2020, 12:00 am
imageBackground: The members and leadership of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) continue to expand awareness of the impact of burnout on the delivery of care and on the health care professionals that are critical to delivering that care. Surgeon coaching, when appropriately defined, shows considerable promise as a method to create positive change in our team environment and practice, our organizational culture, and our own wellness. Methods: The surgeon coaching concepts shared are a mix of expert opinions, literature review, and personal experiences of the author. The literature review includes extensive experience in behavioral health, adult learning theory, and the evolution of best practices as they pertain to coaching techniques and skills. Early experiences in physician coaching highlight the challenges and successes when these concepts are applied to high performance professionals in our current health care environment. Results: Physician and surgeon coaching is more akin to executive coaching and self-directed learning for highly trained individuals and teams rather than a method of remediation or coercion into someone else’s agenda. A methodology for performance improvement to those who have already achieved so much in their careers was shared as a structure for those struggling to organize the process, avoid blind spots, and leverage a growth/reward process rather than the traditional destructive/punitive process that includes shaming, guilting, and other negative techniques. Surgeon coaches and coaching skills are expected to be significant ingredients of performance improvement in team-based care, organizational culture, and physician wellness. Discussion: Coaching, the activity of bringing forth knowledge, wisdom, and insight through: asking open-ended questions, listening deeply, keenly observing, dedication to self-awareness, and commitment to learning can be particularly helpful in burnout management and surgeon wellness, and in surgical technique, team management, career advancement, and any leadership skill. What if your ability to improve at anything is unique to you? What if your ability to grow is most effective and efficient with a coach who can better understand your uniqueness and guide you in a sequence of deliberate practice and learning? What if the answer to reaching your goals or working through your challenges is coaching? If you and your coach are paying attention to longevity and sustainability, then you must pay attention to all areas of performance improvement, including mental, emotional, and physical practices. Conclusions: High-performance surgeons engage in coaching to maintain or amplify that passion for performance improvement in anything and everything. It does not matter whether you are seeking coaching for juggling the many priorities in your life and practice; dealing with difficult outcomes, litigation, or personal stress; refining a technique or skill; addressing burnout; climbing to the next level of your career; training for or sustaining the marathon of a surgical career; implementing incremental steps or changes; or practicing wellness in your own way. Any way you look at it, coaching and coaching skills can be a positive influence and an avenue to even greater success for surgeons in their life and career.
Posted: July 1, 2020, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Supracondylar fractures of the humerus (SCH) are the most common fractures about the elbow in children that require operative stabilization. Considering the possible complications involved including nerve deficit and compartment syndrome, documentation is crucial to good patient care. It also is of prime importance for justification or defense of our care should this arise. One of the common concerns in transition from written documentation to an electronic medical record (EMR) is availability of proper documentation. We sought to develop an established EMR protocol to streamline and improve proper care and documentation for SCH fractures. This was in response to poor documentation in an initial retrospective evaluation. Methods: Documentation before and after the implementation of a clinical pathway were compared. A retrospective chart review was used to collect documentation information before the implementation of the clinical pathway and a prospective study design was used to collect information after the implementation of the clinical pathway. Proportions of preclinical and postclinical pathway documentation were compared before and after the implementation of the clinical pathway using a χ2 test, or the Fisher exact test for measures in which at least 20% of the expected frequencies were
Posted: November 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Fibular hemimelia is the most common deficiency involving the long bones. Paley classification is based on the ankle joint morphology, identifies the basic pathology, and helps in planning the surgical management. Reconstruction surgery encompasses foot deformity correction and limb length equalization. The SUPERankle procedure is a combination of bone and soft tissue procedures that stabilizes the foot and addresses all deformities. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 29 consecutive patients (29 limb segments), surgically treated between December 2000 and December 2014. Among the 29 patients, 27 were treated with reconstructive procedures. Type 1 (8 patients) cases were treated with only limb lengthening, and correction of tibial deformities. Type 2 (7 patients) cases were treated by distal tibial medial hemiepiphysiodesis or supramalleolar varus osteotomy. In type 3 (10 patients) cases, the foot deformity was corrected using the SUPERankle procedure. Type 4 (2 patients) cases were treated with supramalleolar osteotomy along with posteromedial release and lateral column shortening. In a second stage, limb lengthening was performed, using the Ilizarov technique. In the remaining 2 patients (type 3A and type 3C), amputation was performed using Syme technique as a first choice of treatment. Results: The results were evaluated using Association for the Study and Application of Methods of Ilizarov scoring. Excellent results were obtained in 15 of 27 (55%) patients. Six (22%) patients had good results, 4 (14.8%) had fair results, and 2 (7%) had poor results. Mean limb length discrepancy at initial presentation was 3.55 cm (range: 2 to 5.5 cm) which significantly improved to 1.01 cm (range: 0 to 3 cm) after treatment (P=0.015). Conclusions: Our results and a review of the literature clearly suggest that limb reconstruction according to Paley classification, is an excellent option in the management of fibular hemimelia. Our 2-staged procedure (SUPERankle procedure followed by limb lengthening) helps in reducing the complications of limb lengthening and incidence of ankle stiffness. Performing the first surgery at an earlier age (below 5 y) plays a significant role in preventing recurrent foot deformities. Level of Evidence: Level IV.
Posted: October 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageBackground: The purpose of this meta-analysis is to review clinical outcomes and complications following pediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for studies on ACL ruptures in the skeletally immature from 1985 to 2016. Full-text studies in English and performed on humans were included (n=5718). Titles included discussed operative intervention on skeletally immature patients with ACL tears (n=160). Studies that reported rerupture and/or complications with ACL reconstruction specific to the pediatric population, specifically growth disturbance, were then included in a secondary analysis (n=45). Complications not specific to the pediatric population were excluded. Demographics, graft type, surgical technique, follow-up, growth disturbance, rerupture, and patient-reported outcome scores were collected. Data were analyzed in aggregate. Results: In total, 45 studies were included with 1321 patients and 1392 knees. The average age was 13.0 years, 67% were male, and mean follow-up was 49.6 months. There were 115 (8.7%) reruptures in the initial 160 studies reviewed. In total, 94.6% of patients with rerupture required revision ACL surgery. There were 58 total growth disturbances (16 required corrective surgery, or 27.6%). Eighteen knees (3.7%) developed angular deformity, most commonly valgus. There were 37 patients (7.5%) had at least a 1 cm limb-length discrepancy. A total of 23 studies reported International Knee Documentation Committee scores (range, 81 to 100, 88% grade A or B). In total, 20 studies reported excellent Lysholm scores with mean scores of 94.6. Conclusions: Growth disturbance can occur with any of the reconstruction techniques. Proper surgical technique is likely more important than the specific reconstruction technique utilized. Patients with rerupture require surgery at much higher rates than those with growth disturbance. Although much attention has been focused on growth disturbance, we suggest that equal attention be given to the prevention of rerupture in this age group. Level of Evidence: Level III.
Posted: September 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageBackground: With observed success and increased popularity of growth modulation techniques, there has been a trend toward use in progressively younger patients. Younger age at growth modulation increases the likelihood of complete deformity correction and need for implant removal before skeletal maturity introducing the risk of rebound deformity. The purpose of this study was to quantify magnitude and identify risk factors for rebound deformity after growth modulation. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing growth modulation with a tension band plate for coronal plane deformity about the knee with subsequent implant removal. Exclusion criteria included completion epiphysiodesis or osteotomy at implant removal, ongoing growth modulation, and 5 degrees rebound and 30% had >10 degrees rebound in HKA after implant removal. Females below 10 years and males below 12 years at time of growth modulation had greater mean change in HKA after implant removal compared with older patients (8.4 vs. 4.7 degrees, P=0.012). Patients with initial deformity >20 degrees had an increased frequency of rebound >10 degrees compared with patients with less severe initial deformity (78% vs. 22%, P=0.002). Conclusions: Rebound deformity after growth modulation is common. Growth modulation at a young age and large initial deformity increases risk of rebound. However, rebound does not occur in all at risk patients, therefore, we recommend against routine overcorrection. Level of Evidence: Level IV—retrospective study.
Posted: August 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageBackground: The long-term effects of small limb length discrepancies have been poorly documented in the literature. References to low back pain, hip pathology, knee pathology, and foot problems abound in the popular literature. Health care providers frequently recommend the use of lifts for structural and functional limb length discrepancies, yet the natural history of limb length inequality as well as the effectiveness of treatments that may be recommended are obscure. The purpose of this paper is to document and evaluate the literature associated with small limb length discrepancies. Methods: A search of the English literature was carried out using PubMed to identify papers dealing with the effects of limb length discrepancies. Papers reporting only expert opinion or case reports were excluded. Results: Papers dealing with the natural history of limb length discrepancy as well as studies in which gait analysis was performed in patients with limb length discrepancy were identified. Only 10% of the population has exactly equal lower limb lengths. Approximately 90% of the population has a limb length discrepancy 2.0 cm are frequently a problem. There is some evidence that limb length discrepancies as little as 5 mm can lead to long-term pathology.
Posted: July 1, 2019, 12:00 am
Background: In order to determine whether treatments are effective in the treatment of meniscus tears, it is first necessary to understand the natural history of meniscus tears. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to ascertain the natural history of meniscus tears in children and adolescents. Methods: A search of the Pubmed and Embase databases was performed using the search terms “meniscus tears,” “natural history of meniscus tears,” “knee meniscus,” “discoid meniscus,” and “natural history of discoid meniscus tears.” Results: A total of 2567 articles on meniscus tears, 28 articles on natural history of meniscus tears, 8065 articles on “menisci,” 396 articles on “discoid meniscus,” and only 2 on the “natural history of discoid meniscus” were found. After reviewing the titles of these articles and reviewing the abstracts of 237 articles, it was clear that there was little true long-term natural history data of untreated meniscus tears nor whether treating meniscus tears altered the natural history. Twenty-five articles were chosen as there was some mention of natural history in their studies. Conclusions: There are few long-term data on untreated meniscal tears or discoid meniscus, or tears in children and adolescents. The literature suggests that there is a higher incidence of chondral injury and subsequent osteoarthritis, but there are many confounding variables which are not controlled for in these relatively short-term papers.
Posted: July 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageIntroduction: Adolescent idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) affects 2% to 3% of the population of which only 0.3% to 0.5% of affected patients will have a curvature of >20 degrees, the curve magnitude at which treatment is generally recommended. For AIS the current natural history data is limited and most of the information comes from a small body of literature from the University of Iowa. Methods: The Iowa natural history studies began as retrospective reviews but beginning in 1976, the cohort was followed prospectively. Outcomes assessed in this group of patients included; mortality, pulmonary function, pregnancy-(effect of pregnancy on scoliosis and the effect of scoliosis on pregnancy), radiographic, curve progression, and osteoarthritis. In addition, validated questionnaires were used to evaluate back pain, pulmonary symptoms, general function, depression, and body image. Results: Patients with untreated AIS can function well as adults, become employed, get married, have children, and grow to become active older adults. Unfortunately, untreated scoliosis may lead to increased back pain and pulmonary symptoms for patients with large thoracic curves. Patients with untreated AIS can also develop substantial deformity, and the cosmetic aspect of this condition cannot be disregarded. Conclusions: The summary findings of this unique lifetime natural history of AIS patients provides patients and parents a solid evidence base upon which to make informed decisions.
Posted: July 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is defined as the diagnosis of a spinal deformity before the age of 5 years. It can be divided into idiopathic, neuromuscular/syndromic, and congenital etiologies. Methods: The literature on the natural history of EOS was summarized. Results: The natural history varies with the etiology of EOS. Idiopathic curves may benefit from early serial casting. The natural history of neuromuscular and syndromic scoliosis is highly dependent on the natural history of the underlying disorder. Congenital scoliosis has a variable prognosis depending on the location and extent of the congenital malformations. Conclusions: Treatment of children with EOS is customized to the particular disorder. While lack of treatment has been shown to lead to increased mortality, extensive early definitive fusion may lead to thoracic insufficiency. Delaying definitive surgery and the use of growing instrumentation may provide benefit in maintaining pulmonary health. Clinical Relevance: Potential disturbance of growth must be considered in the treatment of young children with scoliosis.
Posted: July 1, 2019, 12:00 am
Background: Twenty percent of shoulder dislocations occur in people younger than 20 years old. Management of anterior shoulder instability in young patients remains an evolving and controversial topic. Herein we review the natural history of anterior shoulder dislocation in young patients. Methods: The English-language literature was searched for studies examining the natural history of pediatric and adolescent shoulder dislocation. Recurrent dislocation was the primary outcome of interest in most studies. Results: Most studies found that recurrent instability was likely in young patients. Several systematic reviews reported the recurrence rate for young patients to be >70%. Recurrent instability was likely to cause greater damage to the joint and may result in more extensive and costly surgery. Conclusions: Most studies agree that recurrent anterior shoulder instability is likely in young patients. Some authors advocate for consideration of early surgery in this high-risk population.
Posted: July 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) occurs at a rate of 1 in 10,000 to 20,000 children. Methods: A PubMed search was undertaken to evaluate recent SCFE literature. A convenience sample of articles were selected and summarized. Results: Most slips appear well tolerated long-term with ∼5% resulting in total hip arthroplasty (THA) at 20-year follow-up. Classic data reveals poor outcomes following closed reduction for treatment of SCFE. Improvements in intraoperative fluoroscopy and avoidance of pin penetration have reduced the rates of chondrolysis. Unfortunately, avascular necrosis remains a known risk in patients, occurring in 15% to 50% of patients following acute, unstable slips. This is the most common cause of THA in patients with SCFE. Rate of THA due to degenerative arthritis secondary to SCFE is more difficult to determine and occurs at a later age. Although realignment procedures to address anatomic abnormalities from SCFE have increased in popularity, it is unclear if this prevents degenerative arthritis and subsequently reduces the rate of THA. SCFE patients face an increased risk of disability and death due to their underlying medical comorbidities. Interventions for weight loss, blood pressure management, and lifestyle adjustments should be considered at the time of SCFE diagnosis. Conclusions: SCFE remains a challenging and common condition for pediatric orthopedists. Although innovative techniques have been proposed, long-term outcome data still supports in situ pinning for stable slips, and in situ pinning with capsular decompression for unstable slips to minimize the risk of avascular necrosis.
Posted: July 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Structural hip abnormalities have long been suspected of causing hip osteoarthritis. The concept of deformity of the proximal femur as a cause of osteoarthritis (OA) started with description of the tilt deformity and progressed to the pistol grip, then eventually cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Acetabular over-coverage or retroversion as a cause of impingement is commonly referred to as pincer-type FAI. The primary research question we asked was: what is the natural history of hips with FAI? Methods: We reviewed the literature to identify studies with cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence of the effect of FAI on the development of or association with hip OA. Results: In cross-sectional and longitudinal natural history studies of hip OA, cam-type FAI has consistently shown an association with developing OA. In regard to pincer-type FAI, the data are less convincing with some studies suggesting an increased risk and others showing a protective effect of the acetabular over-coverage. It is clear that not all patients with cam FAI get OA but the altered anatomy does increase the relative risk of developing OA. Conclusions: Cam-type FAI is associated with the development of hip OA; however, there is no role for prophylactic surgery in the asymptomatic hip with the anatomy predisposing to FAI. Further interventional studies are needed to determine whether surgical correction of cam-type FAI in the symptomatic hip alters the natural history of the condition.
Posted: July 1, 2019, 12:00 am
Background: Increased participation in youth sports is associated with increased rates of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears in the skeletally immature. Historically, ACL reconstruction was avoided in the skeletally immature, or delayed until skeletal maturity, to avoid physeal injury and growth disturbance. Current practices and meta-analyses support early ACL reconstruction in some groups, to allow for return to activities and to avoid delayed cartilage/meniscus injury. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to report on the natural history of ACL injuries in the skeletally immature. Methods: A review of published literature on pediatric, skeletally immature ACL tears and conservative, nonoperative treatment was conducted via Pubmed articles published from 1970 to 2018. The search criteria included the key terms “anterior cruciate ligament,” “pediatric” and/or “adolescent,” and “conservative” and/or “nonoperative treatment.” A PRISMA workflow was used to narrow down the articles to those relevant to our analysis and available in full text format. Results: Multiple articles on the nonoperative treatment of the ACL showed secondary meniscal and cartilage damage at the time of follow-up. Some articles showed no difference between the rates of secondary injuries between the surgical and nonsurgical treatment groups; however, the nonsurgical treatment groups were often on significant activity modification. Some articles concluded that nonoperative treatment of the ACL tear may be appropriate in low risk, lower level activity patients, and those that will comply with activity restrictions. Even with bracing and PT programs, active athletes treated without surgery appear to have a concerning rate of secondary meniscus injury after the primary ACL injury event. Conclusions: The natural history of the ACL tear shows nonoperative treatment for the skeletally immature may be a viable treatment pathway for those who are able to comply with the physical activity restrictions. For the general population of young, active adolescents, an ACL injury treated nonoperatively often leads to secondary meniscal and/or cartilage damage, which may lead to knee degeneration and functional instability.
Posted: July 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Delayed diagnosis of flexor tendon injury in children is common, and consequent flexor sheath scarring may necessitate a 2-stage reconstruction. Previous studies show variable outcomes after 2-stage flexor reconstruction in children, especially those below 6 years old. We evaluated functional and subjective outcomes of primary repair and staged reconstruction of zone I and II tendon injuries in children under 6 years of age. Methods: A retrospective chart review identified 12 digits in 10 patients who had undergone surgical treatment of a zone I or II flexor tendon injury. Seven digits had a primary repair and 5 had a 2-stage reconstruction. Time delay from injury to surgery for primary repairs averaged 18 weeks and for 2-stage reconstruction averaged 24 weeks. Outcomes included total active motion, tip pinch and grip strength, sensation, and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI). Results: Average follow-up was 8 years. At final follow-up, mean total active and passive motion of the involved digit was similar between the primary reconstruction and staged groups, and 58% had a “good” or “excellent” American Society for Surgery of the Hand; total active motion (ASSH TAM) result (71% in the primary repair group, 40% in the 2-stage reconstruction group). All regained grip and pinch strength equal to the contralateral hand. The average PODCI Upper Extremity score was 99 (99 in the primary repair group, 98 in the 2-stage reconstruction group) and PODCI Global Function score was 94 (97 in the primary repair group, 91 in the 2-stage reconstruction group). No complications occurred. Conclusions: Our small study demonstrates that both primary repair and 2-stage flexor tendon reconstruction have acceptable long-term functional and subjective outcomes in children below 6 years old, although staged reconstruction had a lower overall ASSH TAM score and subcategorical PODCI scores. Although staged reconstruction has acceptable outcomes in this population, prompt primary repair of flexor tendon injuries in children should always be attempted. Level of Evidence: Level 4—therapeutic.
Posted: May 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Closed reduction (CR) is a common treatment for infantile developmental dysplasia of the hip. The purpose of this observational, prospective, multicenter study was to determine the early outcomes following CR. Methods: Prospectively collected data from an international multicenter study group was analyzed for patients treated from 2010 to 2014. Baseline demographics, clinical exam, radiographic/ultrasonographic data, and history of previous orthotic treatment were assessed. At minimum 1-year follow-up, failure was defined as an IHDI grade 3 or 4 hip and/or need for open reduction. The incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN), residual dysplasia, and need for further surgery was assessed. Results: A total of 78 patients undergoing CR for 87 hips were evaluated with a median age at initial reduction of 8 months (range, 1 to 20 mo). Of these, 8 hips (9%) were unable to be closed reduced initially. At most recent follow-up (median 22 mo; range, 12 to 36 mo), 72/79 initially successful CRs (91%) remained stable. The likelihood of failure was unaffected by initial clinical reducibility of the hip (P=0.434), age at initial CR (P=0.897), or previous treatment in brace (P=0.222). Excluding those hips that failed initial CR, 18/72 hips (25%) developed AVN, and the risk of osteonecrosis was unaffected by prereduction reducibility of the hip (P=0.586), age at CR (P=0.745), presence of an ossific nucleus (P=0.496), or previous treatment in brace (P=0.662). Mean acetabular index on most recent radiographs was 25 degrees (±6 degrees), and was also unaffected by any of the above variables. During the follow-up period, 8/72 successfully closed reduced hips (11%) underwent acetabular and/or femoral osteotomy for residual dysplasia. Conclusions: Following an initially successful CR, 9% of hips failed reduction and 25% developed radiographic AVN at early-term follow-up. History of femoral head reducibility, previous orthotic bracing, and age at CR did not correlate with success or chances of developing AVN. Further follow-up of this prospective, multicenter cohort will be necessary to establish definitive success and complication rates following CR for infantile developmental dysplasia of the hip. Level of Evidence: Level II—prospective observational cohort.
Posted: March 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageOptimal clinical decision making and surgical management of hip dysplasia in children with cerebral palsy (CP) requires an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology (pathomechanics and pathoanatomy), incidence, and natural history. The incidence of hip dysplasia in children with CP is directly related to the degree of motor impairment. A subluxated or dislocated hip in a child with CP can compromise the quality of life for both the child and their caregivers. The goal of this article is to highlight the events over the last 25 years that have had the greatest impact on the management of hip dysplasia in children with CP. It is my opinion that the 2 most significant advances during this time have been the development of a classification system based upon motor impairment (the Gross Motor Function Classification System), and the development of surveillance programs for hip dysplasia in children with CP. This article will contrast neuromuscular hip dysplasia with developmental dysplasia of the hip. It will be shown how the development and utilization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System has contributed to our understanding of the epidemiology and natural history of hip dysplasia in children with CP, and to the assessment of outcomes following surgical management. The impact of hip surveillance programs on early soft tissue surgeries, skeletal hip reconstructions, and the incidence of hip dislocations and salvage surgeries will be reviewed. Challenges in the implementation of hip surveillance programs in resource poor and decentralized health care delivery systems will be considered, and innovative approaches identified.
Posted: July 1, 2018, 12:00 am
imageAlthough the core principles of managing infantile Blount disease generally remain unchanged, treatment modalities have evolved over the years. Consensus has yet to be reached regarding the efficacy of bracing. Children with Blount disease commonly have advanced bone age, which may impact the timing and magnitude of (over) correction of angular deformity. Techniques of growth modulation, based on the tension band principle, continue to gain popularity. Although there are limited reports in the last decade on proximal tibial osteotomy for this developmental disorder, both acute and gradual correction remain viable treatment options in the appropriate setting. In certain older children (>7 y old) with advanced stages of the disease, a medial hemiplateau elevation combined with lateral proximal tibial hemiepiphysiodesis may be needed to address the epiphyseal deformity. Given the possibility of unpredictable proximal tibial physeal activity, all children with Blount disease should be followed at regular intervals till skeletal maturity. To provide sufficient granularity for pooled analyses and help establish evidence-based clinical guidelines, standardization of reporting clinical outcomes among children with Blount disease is encouraged.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageTechniques change, but principles are forever. The techniques used to correct lower extremity deformities in children should be based on the principles of assessment and management of those deformities. This writing is a summation of the introductory lecture on deformity correction that highlights some of those principles.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageAlthough cubitus varus has been regarded as a purely cosmetic problem in the pediatric population, symptomatic elbow instability, and ulnar neuropathy from the mechanical axis malalignment have been reported in adults. This overview discusses the biomechanical axis disruption that leads to soft tissue and morphologic bony alterations in the elbow and offers a compelling argument for corrective osteotomy to treat pediatric cubitus varus.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageLower extremity deformities of patients with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita present a wide spectrum of severity and deformity combinations. Treatment goals range from merely ensuring comfortable seating and shoe wear, to fully independent and active ambulation, but the overarching intention is to help realize the patient’s greatest potential for independence and function. Treatment of hip and knee contractures and dislocations has become more interventional, whereas treatment of foot deformities has paradoxically become much less surgical. This article synopsizes the treatment strategies presented in September 2014 in Saint Petersburg, Russia at the second international symposium on arthrogryposis.
Posted: July 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Children with flatfeet are frequently referred to pediatric orthopaedic clinics. Most of these patients are asymptomatic and require no treatment. Care must be taken to differentiate patients with flexible flatfeet from those with rigid deformity that may have underlying pathology and have need of treatment. Rigid flatfeet in infants may be attributable to a congenital vertical talus (CVT); whereas those in older children and adolescents may be due to an underlying tarsal coalition. We performed a review of the recent literature regarding evaluation and management of pediatric flatfeet to discuss new findings and suggest areas where further research is needed. Methods: We searched the PubMed database for all papers related to the treatment of pediatric flatfoot, tarsal coalition, and CVT published from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014, yielding 85 English language papers. Results: A total of 18 papers contributed new or interesting findings. Conclusions: The pediatric flexible flatfoot (FFF) remains poorly defined, making the understanding, study, and treatment of the condition extremely difficult. Pediatric FFF is often unnecessarily treated. There is very little evidence for the efficacy of nonsurgical intervention to affect the shape of the foot or to influence potential long-term disability for children with FFF. The treatment of tarsal coalition remains challenging, but short-term and intermediate-term outcome studies are satisfactory, whereas long-term outcome studies are lacking. Management of the associated flatfoot deformity may be as important as management of the coalition itself. The management of CVT is still evolving; however, early results of less invasive treatment methods seem promising. Level of Evidence: Level 4—literature review.
Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageMost proximal and diaphyseal pediatric humeral fractures can be treated successfully by closed means; however, certain patient factors or fracture characteristics may make surgical stabilization with flexible intramedullary nails (FIN) a better choice. Common indications for FIN of pediatric humeral fractures include unstable proximal-third fractures in children nearing skeletal maturity, unstable distal metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction fractures, shaft fractures in polytraumatized patients or patients with ipsilateral both-bone forearm fractures (floating elbow), and prophylactic stabilization of benign diaphyseal bone cysts or surgical stabilization of pathologic fractures. FIN can be safely inserted in an antegrade or retrograde manner depending on the fracture location and configuration. Careful dissection at the location of rod insertion can prevent iatrogenic nerve injuries. Rapid fracture union and return to full function can be expected in most cases. Implant prominence is the most common complication.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imagePediatric ankle injuries are common, especially in athletes; however, the incidence of syndesmosis injuries in children has been scarcely reported. Injuries to the ankle syndesmosis, termed “high ankle sprains,” can affect high-level and recreational athletes and have been related to delayed return to play, persistent pain, and adult injuries have been associated with long-term disability. Syndesmotic injuries do occur in children, especially those who participate in sports that involve cutting and pivoting (football, soccer) or sports with rigid immobilization of the ankle (skiing, hockey). Unstable pediatric syndesmosis injuries requiring surgical fixation are often associated with concomitant fibular fracture in skeletally mature children. Physician vigilance and careful clinical examination coupled with appropriate radiographs can determine the extent of the injury in the majority of circumstances.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageNo level 1 evidence is available to guide the surgical treatment of adolescent clavicle fractures. Adult literature is not applicable as adolescent mid-diaphyseal clavicle fractures do not develop nonunions, and only a small percentage (10% to 20%) are symptomatic from malunions. Current indications for operative fixation are: (1) completely displaced midshaft fracture with shortening of >2 cm; (2) superior displacement with skin tenting and/or an impending open fracture; (3) associated neurovascular injury; (4) open clavicular fracture; and (5) floating shoulder with a completely displaced clavicular fracture. Future large prospective randomized studies will need to be performed to accurately define which adolescent patients will “truly” benefit from surgical intervention.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageDespite the increasing popularity of operative treatment in adolescent tibia fractures, casting remains a viable first-line treatment. Because the selection bias in published reports does not allow direct comparison between casting and flexible nail treatment of closed pediatric tibia fractures, it is unclear whether flexible nailing offers any advantages over casting. This overview discusses parameters of acceptable alignment, indications, techniques for successful reduction and casting, subsequent inpatient and outpatient management including wedging of casted tibia fractures, expected outcomes, and comparison of casting with flexible nailing. As with any orthopaedic procedure, careful attention to patient selection, indications, and detail facilitates successful cast treatment in this older pediatric population.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageMost proximal humerus fractures in skeletally immature individuals are treated nonoperatively with excellent functional results. Extensive remodeling of the proximal humerus and the wide arc of motion of the glenohumeral joint accommodate a large degree of fracture displacement and angulation. The treatment of severely displaced fractures and/or severely angulated fractures continues to be debated. Older patients and those with significantly displaced fractures may benefit from surgery because of their inability to remodel displacement and angulation during their limited remaining growth. The decision to treat a proximal humerus fracture in a skeletally immature patient operatively versus nonoperatively is dependent on the following 3 factors: displacement, bone age, and capacity to remodel. There is an increasing trend toward treating severely displaced and severely angulated fractures surgically, especially in older patients and adolescents. Smooth wires, percutaneous threaded wires, cannulated screws, and retrograde elastic stable intramedullary nailing are acceptable options for fixation.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageBackground: As casts are routinely used in pediatric orthopaedics, casts saws are commonly used to remove such casts. Despite being a viewed as the “conservative” and therefore often assumed safest treatment modality, complications associated with the use of casts and cast saws occur. Methods: In this manuscript, we review the risk factors associated with cast saw injuries. Results: Cast saw injuries are thermal or abrasive (or both) in nature. Thermal risk factors include: cast saw specifications (including a lack of attached vacuum), use of a dull blade, cutting in a concavity, too thin padding, and overly thick casting materials. Risk factors associated with abrasive injuries include: sharp blades, thin padding, and cutting over boney prominences. Because nearly all clinicians contact the skin with the blade during cast removal, appropriate “in-out technique” is critical. Such technique prevents a hot blade from remaining in contact with the skin for any significant time, diminishing the risk of burn. Similarly, using such technique prevents “dragging the blade” that may pull the skin taught, cutting it. It may be useful to teach proper technique as perforating a cast rather than cutting a cast.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Radial neck fractures in children are rare, representing 5% of all elbow pediatric fractures. Most are minimally displaced or nondisplaced. Severely displaced or angulated radial neck fractures often have poor outcomes, even after open reduction, and case series reported in literature are limited. The aim of the study is to analyze the outcomes of patients with a completely displaced and angulated fracture who underwent open reduction when closed reduction failed. Methods: Between 2000 and 2009, 195 patients with radial neck fractures were treated in our institute. Twenty-four cases satisfied all the inclusion criteria and were evaluated clinically and radiologically at a mean follow-up of 7 years. At follow-up, the carrying angle in full elbow extension and the range of motion of the elbow and forearm were measured bilaterally. We recorded clinical results as good, fair, or poor according to the range of movement and the presence of pain. Radiographic evaluation documented the size of the radial head, the presence of avascular necrosis, premature physeal closure, and cubitus valgus. Results: Statistical analysis showed that fair and poor results are directly correlated with loss of pronation-supination (P=0.001), reduction of elbow flexion-extension (P=0.001), increase of elbow valgus angle (P=0.002), necrosis of the radial head (P=0.001), premature physeal closure (P=0.01), and associated lesions (olecranon fracture with or without dislocation of the elbow) (P=0.002). Discussion: In our cases, residual radial head deformity due to premature closure of the growth plate and avascular necrosis were correlated with a functional deficit. Associated elbow injury was coupled with a negative prognosis. In our series, about 25% of patients had fair and 20% had poor results. Outcomes were good in 55% and felt to represent a better outcome than if the fracture remained nonanatomically reduced with residual angulation and/or displacement of the radial head. This study reports the largest series of these fractures with a combination of significant angulation and displacement of the fracture requiring open reduction. We feel that open reduction is indicated when the head of the radius is completely displaced and without contact with the rim of the metaphysis.
Posted: December 1, 2014, 12:00 am
imageSurgical hip dislocation (SHD) is a versatile approach used to address both intra-articular and extra-articular pathology around the hip joint in both pediatric and adult patients. It allows anterior dislocation of the femoral head for direct visualization of the hip joint while preserving femoral head vascularity and minimizing trauma to the abductor musculature. Previously described indications for SHD include femoroacetabular impingement, deformity resulting from Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, periarticular trauma, benign lesions of the hip joint, and osteochondral lesions. In this review, we will describe current surgical techniques, indications, and clinical outcomes for SHD.
Posted: October 1, 2014, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Much attention has been given to the relationship between various training factors and athletic injuries, but no study has examined the impact of sleep deprivation on injury rates in young athletes. Information about sleep practices was gathered as part of a study designed to correlate various training practices with the risk of injury in adolescent athletes. Methods: Informed consent for participation in an online survey of training practices and a review of injury records was obtained from 160 student athletes at a combined middle/high school (grades 7 to 12) and from their parents. Online surveys were completed by 112 adolescent athletes (70% completion rate), including 54 male and 58 female athletes with a mean age of 15 years (SD=1.5; range, 12 to 18 y). The students’ responses were then correlated with data obtained from a retrospective review of injury records maintained by the school’s athletic department. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that hours of sleep per night and the grade in school were the best independent predictors of injury. Athletes who slept on average
Posted: March 1, 2014, 12:00 am
imagePhyseal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula are common and can be seen at any age, although most are seen in the adolescent. An understanding of the unique anatomy of the skeletally immature ankle in relation to the mechanism of injury will help one understand the injury patterns seen in this population. A thorough clinical exam is critical to the diagnosis and treatment of these injuries and the avoidance of potentially catastrophic complications. Nondisplaced physeal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula can be safely treated nonoperatively. Displaced fractures should undergo a gentle reduction with appropriate anesthesia while multiple reduction attempts should be avoided. Gapping of the physis >3 mm after reduction should raise the suspicion of entrapped periosteum that will increase the risk of premature physeal closure. Open reduction of displaced Salter-Harris type III and IV fractures is critical to maintain joint congruity and minimize the risk of physeal arrest.
Posted: June 1, 2012, 12:00 am
imageGrowth plate fractures of the distal femur are challenging to treat, with complications that require a secondary surgery 40% to 60% of the time. These fractures often necessitate operative intervention, even in the youngest patients and even with minimal apparent displacement. Treatment varies with the Salter-Harris (SH) classification and with the extent of initial displacement, ranging from simple casting for nondisplaced SH I fractures to open reduction and internal fixation for almost all SH III and IV fractures. Poor outcomes have been associated with pediatric fracture care of SH III and IV in 29% to 32% of cases. There are many pitfalls that have to be avoided in the treatment of these fractures to prevent malunion, growth arrest, and posttraumatic arthritis.
Posted: June 1, 2012, 12:00 am
imageThe majority of pediatric finger fractures can be treated by closed means with expected excellent outcomes. However, a subset of fractures can turn “ugly,” with complications such as growth arrest, malunion, and joint dysfunction if not recognized and treated appropriately. The present paper discusses several fractures in a child’s fingers that can cause substantial problems if not recognized promptly, highlighting important themes in the evaluation and treatment of a child’s injured finger.
Posted: June 1, 2012, 12:00 am
imageThe fundamental principles of fracture care apply to medial epicondyle fractures in that the goals of treatment are to obtain fracture healing and to promote a return of appropriate motion, strength, and stability. Recent studies have revealed limitations of some classically described evaluation methods and have revealed more precise methods of measuring displacement. The authors of this manuscript describe established principles of care and incorporate recent evidence-based articles to help the clinician study the issues relative to the clinical evaluation and the operative and nonoperative treatment of medial epicondyle fractures.
Posted: June 1, 2012, 12:00 am
imageLegg-Calve-Perthes disease is a complex pediatric hip disorder with many uncertainties. Various theories on its etiology have been proposed but none have been validated conclusively. Through experimental studies, however, some insight into the pathogenesis of a femoral head deformity after ischemic necrosis has been gained. These studies reveal that mechanical and biological factors contribute to the development of the femoral head deformity. Better understanding of the pathobiology of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease will lead to the development of more effective treatments, which are able to specifically target the pathogenic processes.
Posted: September 1, 2011, 12:00 am
imageBackground Hip distraction in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease unloads the joint, which negates the harmful effect of the stresses on the articular surface, which may promote the sound healing of the areas of necrosis. Methods Nonarticulated arthrodiastasis without soft tissue release using an Ilizarov external fixator was applied to 29 patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (older than 8 y at onset and lateral pillar type C or B). Results Follow-up period ranged from 2.5 to 11 years with an average of 7.5 years. Twenty-seven cases (93%) had improvement of the range of motion postoperatively. Preoperatively, all patients had constant pain, whereas at last follow-up 26 (86%) patients had no pain and 3 had an improvement. Stulberg classification was applied to 21 cases who reached skeletal maturity at last follow-up: 9 cases were type II, 7 cases were type III, 4 cases were type IV, and 1 case was type V. Conclusions Nonarticulated hip distraction without soft tissue release seems to be a valid treatment option in cases with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease where poor results are expected from conventional treatment.
Posted: September 1, 2011, 12:00 am
imageGrowth in childhood and in puberty has a major influence on the evolution of spinal curvature. The yearly rate of increase in standing height and sitting height, bone age, and Tanner signs are essential parameters. Additionally, biometric measurements must be repeated every six months. Puberty is a turning point. The pubertal diagram is characterized by two phases: the first two years are a phase of acceleration, and the last three years is a phase of decelaration. Thoracic growth is the fourth dimension of the spine. Bone age is an essential parameter. Risser 0 covers two third of the pubertal growth. On the acceleration phase, olecranon evaluation is more precise than the hand. On the deceleration phase, the Risser sign must be completed by the hand maturation. A 30 degree curve at the very beginning of puberty has 100% risk of surgery. Any spinal, if progression is greater than 10 degree per year on the first two years of puberty the surgical risk is 100%.
Posted: January 1, 2011, 12:00 am
imageAcceptable alignment of forearm fractures in children is controversial. An initial attempt at closed reduction in the emergency department is appropriate for the majority of these injuries. Complex or unstable fractures and those that cannot be maintained in acceptable alignment are candidates for surgical intervention. As a general guideline, fractures with complete displacement will remodel satisfactorily. However, angulation may be more critical for preservation of forearm rotation. Up to 15 degrees angulation is recommended as maximum angulation for mid-shaft and distal-shaft fractures in children younger than 8 years old. But 10 degrees is recommended as the maximum acceptable angulation for older children and proximal shaft fractures. When malunion is greater than this, remodeling is unreliable but may occur for fractures with less than 20-30 degrees of angulation.
Posted: March 1, 2010, 12:00 am
imageFractures of the distal radius account for 80 percent of pediatric forearm fractures. The rapid growth of the distal radial physis and the on-going transformation of the metaphysic explain the propensity for fractures in this location and the potential for fracture remodeling. Fractures of the distal ulna are less common and usually occur in conjunction with fractures of the distal radius. In general both injuries can be managed by closed treatment and casting. Indications for skeletal fixation and/or open reduction are discussed. Complications are infrequent but not insignificant and usually treatable with early recognition and appropriate intervention.
Posted: March 1, 2010, 12:00 am
imageA small subset of serious injuries to the pediatric elbow, deemed “TRASH” lesions, are easily missed on radiograph because of their benign appearance. These lesions however, represent a group of osteochondral injuries, which if treated insufficiently result in chronic long-term consequences. Epiphyseal separations, a displaced intra-articular medial condyles before ossification of the secondary center, capitellar shear fractures, radial head fractures with radiocapitellar subluxation and osteochondral fractures of the olecranon, radial head or distal humerus with joint incongruity comprise the group of “TRASH lesions”. These injuries are usually seen in children less than 10 years of age who sustain high-energy trauma. The challenge is a prompt diagnosis requiring a high level of suspicion and early additional imaging. Many of these injuries are displaced and unstable requiring anatomic reduction, internal fixation with or without soft tissue repair for further stability. These injuries when diagnosed late, missed completely or treated improperly without aggressive surgical care can result in long-term complications. Surgical reconstruction of the late presenting malunion is difficult.
Posted: March 1, 2010, 12:00 am

Latest Results for Journal of Children's Orthopaedics

The latest content available from Springer

Abstract

Purpose

Children with cerebral palsy often have musculoskeletal disorders involving the hip. There are several procedures that are commonly used to treat these disorders. Proximal femur prosthetic interposition arthroplasty (PFIA) is an option for non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy who have a painful, spastic dislocated hip. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the results of PFIA by examining treatment outcomes, complications, and overall effects on the child and their caregiver.

Methods

Charts were reviewed over a 5-year period at our institution. The focus of the data collection was pain, range of motion (ROM), and overall clinical outcome. Clinical outcome was graded as excellent, good, fair, and poor. Length of follow-up, presence of heterotopic ossification, femoral prosthesis migration, and information provided by competed caregiver questionnaires were analyzed.

Results

A total of 16 hips in 12 patients met the inclusion criteria. Average age at time of surgery was 12 years 1.2 months. Average follow-up was 40.4 months. Three hips required revision surgery. Average time before revision surgery was 16 months. Overall outcomes were excellent/good for seven hips and fair/poor for nine. Pain outcomes were excellent/good for nine hips and fair/good for seven. ROM outcomes were excellent/good for nine hips and fair/poor for seven. The majority of caregivers surveyed would recommend this procedure.

Conclusion

Clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of PFIA yielded variable results with this cohort of children with regards to pain and range of motion. Despite these varied results, the majority of caregivers were satisfied with the outcome and would recommend PFIA. PFIA is a salvage option for the painful, spastic dislocated hip, but significant evidence to prove its effectiveness over other salvage procedures is lacking. Based on our results, we conclude that PFIA has the ability to benefit children with cerebral palsy with an acceptable risk profile similar to that reported in recent publications.

Level of evidence IV; retrospective case-series.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Unlike external fixators, the use of solid intramedullary lengthening nails is restricted to defined anatomical preconditions, such as an adequate bone length. Furthermore, all deformity corrections except the lengthening procedure have to be implemented intraoperatively and cannot be adjusted postoperatively. Conversely, even complex deformity corrections can be performed using intramedullary devices after a thorough preoperative planning. For preparation of the intramedullary cavity as well as positioning of the lengthening nail according to the preoperative planning, reaming the medullary canal with rigid reamers which don’t follow the line of least resistance is inevitable. However, the application of solid lengthening nails might be limited, especially in children with ongoing epiphyseal growth, although a central perforation of the growth plate was shown to have no adverse effects on the growth potential. In cases with complex or multilevel deformities, an additional osteotomy and locking plate fixation could sometimes be a valuable solution in order to avoid external fixation. The low complication rate as well as the reduced compromising of soft tissues and periosteum render intramedullary lengthening nails the state-of-the-art procedure for limb lengthening in combination with deformity correction in patients who meet the anatomical preconditions.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

Amputations and fitting surgery have a long history in children with limb deficiencies. With the current developments in limb reconstruction and new techniques in prosthetics, the indications for amputation and fitting surgery might have shifted, but still have a very important role in creating high functional performance, optimal participation and quality of life. The purpose of this current concepts article is to give an overview of the indications, dilemmas and technical considerations in the decision-making for amputation and fitting surgery. A special part of this overview is dedicated to the indications, variations and outcomes in rotationplasties.

Methods

The article is based on the experience of a multidisciplinary reconstruction team for children with complex limb deficiencies, as well as research of the literature on the various aspects that cover this multidisciplinary topic.

Results

For those children with a more severe limb deficiency, reconstruction is not always feasible for every patient. In those cases, amputation with prosthetic fitting can lead to a good result. Outcomes in quality of life and function do not significantly differ from the children that had reconstruction. For children with a postaxial deficiency with a femur that is too short for lengthening, and with a stable ankle and foot with good function, rotationplasty offers the best functional outcome. However, the decision-making between the different options will depend on different individual factors.

Conclusions

Amputations and rotationplasties combined with optimal prosthesis fitting in children with more severe limb deficiencies may lead to excellent short- and long-term results. An experienced multidisciplinary team for children with complex limb deficiencies should guide the patient and parents in the decision-making between the different options without or with prosthesis.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

Instability of the knee is a common finding in patients with congenital limb deficiency. The instability can be attributed to soft tissue abnormalities, frontal, sagittal or rotational deformity of the lower limb and bony dysplasia of the patella or of the femoral condyles. In most of the cases, these pathomorphologic changes stay asymptomatic in daily activity. However, instability can appear during deformity correction and bone-lengthening procedures, leading to flexion contracture or subluxation of the knee.

Methods

A review of pediatric orthopaedic literature on different factors of knee instability, state-of-the-art treatment options in congenital limb deficiency and in cases of lengthening-related knee subluxation is presented and the authors’ preferred treatment methods are described.

Results

Leg lengthening and deformity correction in patients with congenital limb deficiencies can be achieved with various techniques, such as guided growth, monolateral or circular external fixation and intramedullary lengthening nails. Radiographic assessment and clinical examination of the knee stability are obligatory to estimate the grade of instability prior to surgical procedures. Preparatory surgery, as well as preventive measures such as bracing, bridging of the knee and intensive physical therapy, can help to avoid subluxation during lengthening in unstable knees.

Conclusions

Adequate surgical techniques, preventive measures and early detection of signs of subluxation can lead to good functional results in patients with congenital limb deficiency.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Objectives

In the last decades, limb lengthening has not been limited to the treatment of patients with dwarfism and deformities resulting from congenital anomalies, trauma, tumor and infections, but, has also been used for aesthetic reasons. Cosmetic lengthening by the Ilizarov method with circular external fixation has been applied to individuals with constitutional short stature who wish to be taller.

Materials and methods

From January 1985 to December 2010, the medical records of 63 patients with constitutional short stature (36 M, 27F; 126 legs) who underwent cosmetic bilateral leg lengthening using a hybrid advanced fixator according to the Ilizarov method, were reviewed, retrospectively. The mean age was 24.8 years, while the mean preoperative height was 152.6 cm. Paley’s criteria were used to evaluate problems, obstacles, and complications from the time of surgery until 1 year after frame’s removal.

Result

The mean lengthening achieved in all patients was 7.2 cm (range: 5–11 cm), with a mean duration of treatment of 9 months and 15 days (range: 7–18 months). The mean follow-up time was 6.14 years (range 1–10).

Conclusion

The cosmetic leg lengthening was helpful to all patients, improving their social capabilities and self-confidence. All patients considered their stature as normal and they reported satisfaction and gratification with important changes in their professional and personal life. Cosmetic leg lengthening may raise some ethical objections and for that reason patients should be well informed about all the risks and complications related to this type of surgery.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

For decades, the classic indication for limb lengthening has been reserved for anisomelia that was expected to reach or exceed 5 cm at maturity. Epiphysiodesis was reserved for discrepancies in the 2–5 cm range. With the increasing sophistication of fixators, including rail, hexapod, and hybrid, complex deformities may be corrected simultaneously while moderate to extreme lengthening is achieved. More recently, iterations of telescoping intramedullary rods have further strengthened our armamentarium. Meanwhile, permanent epiphysiodesis techniques, both open and percutaneous, have yielded to more versatile and reversible tethering of one (angle) or both (length) sides of a physis. While the techniques of guided growth and callotasis seem to be diametrically opposed, they may be used in a tandem or complementary fashion, for the benefit of the patient. If treatment is undertaken during skeletal growth, one must be aware that issues remain regarding the accurate assessment of skeletal maturity and prediction of the ultimate outcome. Therefore, there is potential for over- or undercorrection. Reversible and serial guided growth now enable the surgeon to commence intervention at a comparatively young age, for the purpose of optimizing limb alignment and reducing the ultimate discrepancy. Frame application may be delayed or, in some cases, avoided altogether. With the limb properly aligned at the outset of lengthening, elective use of a telescoping intramedullary nail may now be favored over a frame accordingly.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am
Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

When treating slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), a smooth pin with a hook or a short threaded screw can be used to allow further growth, which could be important to prevent the development of impingement and early arthritis. The purpose of this investigation was to measure growth in three dimensions after fixation of SCFE.

Methods

Sixteen participants with unilateral SCFE, nine girls and seven boys with a median age of 12.0 years (range 8.4–15.7 years), were included. The slipped hip was fixed with a smooth pin with a hook, and the non-slipped hip was prophylactically pinned. At the time of surgery, tantalum markers were installed bilaterally on each side of the growth plate through the drilled hole for the pin. Examination with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) was performed postoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months. The position of the epiphysis in relation to the metaphysis was calculated.

Results

At 12 months, the epiphysis moved caudally, median 0.16 mm and posteriorly 2.28 mm on the slipped side, in comparison to 2.28 cranially and 0.91 mm posteriorly on the non-slipped side, p = 0.003 and p = 0.030, respectively. Both slipped and non-slipped epiphysis moved medially, 1.52 and 1.74 mm, respectively. A marked variation in the movement was noted, especially on the slipped side.

Conclusions

The epiphysis moved in relation to the metaphysis after smooth pin fixation, both on the slipped side and on the prophylactically fixed non-slipped side, implying further growth. The RSA method can be used to understand remodelling after ‘growth-sparing’ fixation of SCFE.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Limb-length discrepancies and extremity deformities are among the most common non-traumatic orthopaedic conditions for which children are hospitalised. There is a need to develop new treatment options for lower-limb length discrepancy in order to ameliorate treatment outcomes, avoid or reduce rates of complication and provide early rehabilitation. The authors report on the basic principles, experimental and clinical data, advantages, problems and complications of a combined technique associating the Ilizarov method and flexible intramedullary nailing (FIN) in limb lengthening and deformity correction in children. They describe features of the use of hydroxyapatite-coated intramedullary nails in patients with certain metabolic bone disorders and in cases where bone consolidation has been compromised. The advantages of bone lengthening using a combined technique (circular fixator plus FIN) are a lower healing index, quicker distraction-consolidation, a reduced rate of septic and bone complications, the ability to correct deformities gradually and the increased stability of bone fragments during the external fixation period and after frame removal.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Pin-tract infection (PTI) is the most commonly expected problem, or even an almost inevitable complication, when using external fixation. Left unteated, PTI will progress unavoidably, lead to mechanical pin loosening, and ultimately cause instability of the external fixator pin–bone construct. Thus, PTI remains a clinical challenge, specifically in cases of limb lengthening or deformity correction. Standardised pin site protocols which encompass an understanding of external fixator biomechanics and meticulous surgical technique during pin and wire insertion, postoperative pin site care and pin removal could limit the incidence of major infections and treatment failures. Here we discuss concepts regarding the epidemiology, physiopathology and microbiology of PTI in paediatric populations, as well as the clinical presentations, diagnosis, classification and treatment of these infections.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

Tibialis anterior tendon transfers (TATT) are commonly performed in young children following Ponseti casting for clubfeet. The classic TATT involves advancing the tendon through a hole drilled in the ossified cuneiform. The aim of this study was to determine if tendons transferred through unossified bones have untoward effects on subsequent bone development.

Method

Twenty-five piglets underwent one of five surgical procedures. An 18-gauge needle was then used to place a tunnel through the bony or cartilaginous portion of the calcaneus (through direct visualization) and isolated slips of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) were placed through the tunnels, as determined by surgical procedure. Radiographic and/or histologic evaluations of the calcaneal apophyses were then performed. A discrete (1–4) and dichotomous “Normal” or “Abnormal” scoring system was developed and its reliability assessed to grade the appearance of the calcanei. Calcaneal appearances following the surgical procedures were then compared with controls. The average load to failure of a subset of transferred tendons was then compared using an MTS machine.

Results

The proposed apophyseal grading system (1–4) demonstrated an intraclass correlational coefficient (ICC) for consistency of 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 < ICC < 0.95] and ICC for agreement of 0.91 (95% CI 0.86 < ICC < 0.95), indicating strong agreement and consistency. Similarly, Fleiss’ kappa for the 1–4 scoring system was found to be 0.67, indicating substantial agreement between reviewers. When the 1–4 system was translated into the dichotomous scheme “Normal” and “Abnormal”, the kappa value increased to 0.94, indicating strong agreement. Forty-six apophyses (13 control and 33 operative) were assessed using this scoring scheme. Apophyseal transfers were significantly more abnormal than controls (p < 0.0001), while no difference in abnormalities was found following tunnel placement alone (p = 1). Mechanical testing of the tendons transferred to bone or through the cartilaginous apophysis demonstrated no significant differences (p = 0.2).

Conclusion

Tendon transfers through unossified bones altered subsequent bone development.

Significance

While the long-term consequence of these structural changes is unknown, these findings suggest that tendon transfers through unossified bones should be avoided and alternative methods of tendon fixation explored.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Background

Reimer’s migration percentage (MP) is the most established radiographic risk factor for hip migration in cerebral palsy (CP), and it assists surgical decision-making. The head–shaft angle (HSA) measures the valgus of the head and neck in relation to the shaft and may also be a useful predictor of hip migration at a young age. This study first defined normal values and investigated whether the head–shaft angle (HSA) is a continuous risk factor for hip migration in CP.

Methods

Three hundred and fifty AP pelvic radiographs of 100 consecutive children comprising the hip surveillance programme in our region were analysed for MP and HSA. Inclusion criteria were children with spastic CP and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels of III–V, along with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. The mean age was 8.8 (range 3–18) years and the mean follow-up time was 7.5 (range 5–10) years. Radiographs of 103 typically developing children (TDC) were selected for the control group. The reliability of the measurements was determined. A random effects analysis was used to assess the relationship between MP and HSA for all data and for MP > 40 %.

Results

The TDC cohort had a mean HSA of 157.7° whilst that for the CP cohort was 161.7°. The value declined with age in both groups but remained consistently higher in the CP group. A random effects analysis considering the longitudinal data showed that there was no significant effect of HSA on MP. Similarly, when excluding CP patients with MP < 40 %, there was no significant effect of HSA on MP.

Conclusions

This study found no correlation between HSA and hip migration in children with CP in this age group. Using the HSA as a routine radiographic measure in the management pathway across childhood does not offer any added value. Early enrolment onto the hip surveillance programme could offer a better prediction of hip migration using the HSA at a very young age.

Level of evidence

II retrospective prognostic study.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

When we lengthen a bone in a child, the parents and the family circle are often obsessed by the amount a lengthening obtained. However, for the surgeon, lengthen a bone is quite pretty easy, but dealing with the joints above and below the lengthening area can be very challenging. Indeed, during the lengthening process, muscles and tendons will be progressively stretched, leading to potential joint contracture or even dislocation. The objective of the surgeon will be to avoid this situation. The first mean at disposal is the physiotherapy in order to help the joints to be more supple and to maintain their range of motion. The second mean is the soft tissue release before the surgery, during the lengthening process, or after the hardware removal when the capacities of physiotherapy are overdone. As a last resort, it can be helpful to bridge the joint to protect it during the lengthening.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Successful deformity correction depends on establishing the aetiology of the deformity. Clinical examination, additional laboratory tests and consultation with other experts may be needed to complete the workup. Imaging studies should include full-length standing X-rays in all relevant planes, and additional imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may add information on bone morphology and growth plates’ anatomy. Based on the data, analysis of the deformity and length differences is performed, followed by prediction of deformities at skeletal maturity. The patients need to be followed up on a regular basis and repeat analysis should be done to improve the accuracy of prediction for final limb length difference. Limb deformity and lengthening correction plans are drawn and updated during follow-up, to achieve straight and equal lower limbs at maturity. Timely surgical procedures are performed using appropriate techniques and the most modern technologies available. These principles are discussed and demonstrated with case examples.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

In paediatric orthopaedics, deformities and discrepancies in length of bones are key problems that commonly need to be addressed in daily practice. An understanding of the physiology behind developing bones is crucial for planning treatment. Modulation of the growing bone can be performed in a number of ways. Here, we discuss the principles and mechanisms behind the techniques. Historically, the first procedures were destructive in their mechanism but reversible techniques were later developed with stapling of the growth plate being the gold standard treatment for decades. It has historically been used for both angular deformities and control of overall bone length. Today, tension band plating has partially overtaken stapling but this technique also carries a risk of complications. The diverging screws in these implants are probably mainly useful for hemiepiphysiodesis. We also discuss new minimally invasive techniques that may become important in future clinical practice.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to evaluate shoulder function following minimally invasive subtotal subscapularis muscle and periarticular capsuloligamentous arthroscopic release in children with Erb’s palsy.

Methods

A prospective study was conducted on 15 consecutive children who underwent subtotal subscapularis muscle and periarticular capsuloligamentous arthroscopic release to treat internal rotation contracture of the shoulder joint after Erb’s palsy. Age at surgery ranged from 24 to 38 months (average 28.3) (2.4 years). All of the patients were assessed clinically and radiologically preoperatively and postoperatively at regular intervals. The Mallet scoring system was used to analyze the results.

Results

The mean external rotation improved from −24° to +46° (p = 0.001) at the last follow-up. Active internal rotation was preserved in all cases. At the final follow-up, there had been no loss of the external rotation gained and no recurrence of internal rotation contracture of the shoulder, and the mean Mallet score (total) had improved from 11 to 17 points (p = 0.001).

Conclusions

In children aged from 1 to 3 years, an arthroscopic release procedure alone may successfully restore function and yield a centered glenohumeral joint, which has a beneficial effect on glenoid remodeling.

Level of evidence

Level IV.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Background

An accessory navicular is generally asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on radiographs. The natural history of an accessory navicular in the pediatric population is largely undescribed.

Methods

The medical charts of 261 pediatric subjects undergoing 2620 annual unilateral radiographs of the foot and ankle (age range 0.25–7 years at enrollment) were reviewed. Radiographs were examined to determine the incidence of accessory navicular, with focus on the age at appearance and, if present, the age at fusion. Skeletal maturity was graded based on ossification pattern of the calcaneal apophysis.

Results

Accessory navicular was identified in 19 subjects (n = 12 males, n = 7 females, p = 0.43), appearing significantly earlier in the female subjects than in the male ones (p = 0.03). Fusion was documented in 42% (n = 8) of subjects, occurring at a mean (±standard deviation) age of 12.5 ± 1.0 years in females and 14.1 ± 2.7 years in males. Skeletal maturity grading demonstrated comparable stages of maturity at the time of fusion between male and female subjects (p = 0.5). Based on an analysis of 160 subjects with serial images extending at least one standard deviation past the mean age of appearance, the overall incidence was 12%.

Conclusion

Our review of pediatric subjects showed that accessory navicular appeared earlier in females than in males. Fusion occurred in 42% of patients at comparable levels of skeletal maturity between the male and female subjects. No significant differences in overall incidence, skeletal maturity, fusion rate, or age of fusion were noted between the male and female subjects.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

The epidemiology and risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) are still being refined. We investigated the local epidemiology of DDH in order to define incidence, identify risk factors, and refine our policy on selective ultrasound screening.

Methods

With a cohort study design, data were prospectively recorded on all live births in our region from January 1998 to December 2008. We compared data on babies treated for DDH with data for all other children. Crude odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to identify potential risk factors. Logistic regression was then used to control for interactions between variables.

Results

There were 182 children born with DDH (with a total of 245 dysplastic hips) and 37,051 without. The incidence was 4.9 per 1000 live births. Female sex (adjusted OR 7.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6–11.2), breech presentation (adjusted OR 24.3, 95% CI 13.1–44.9), positive family history (adjusted OR 15.9, 95% CI 11.0–22.9) and first or second pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5–2.3) were confirmed as risk factors (p < 0.001). In addition, there was an increased risk with vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 2.7, 1.6–4.5, p < 0.001) and post-maturity (OR 1.7, 1.2–2.4, p < 0.002).

Conclusions

One in 200 children born within our region requires treatment for DDH. Using both established and novel risk factors, we can potentially calculate an individual child’s risk. Our findings may contribute to the debate regarding selective versus universal ultrasound screening.

Level of Evidence

Prognostic Study: Level 1.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Background

Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a significant and potentially devastating complication following the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The reported rate of AVN following closed reduction for DDH ranges from 4 to 60%, and the resultant influence on hip development remains unclear.

Purpose

A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to evaluate the frequency of AVN after more than 5 years of follow-up in children that underwent closed reduction at younger than 2-years of age for DDH.

Methods

The search strategy was formulated with key-concepts and keywords identified using the patient problem, intervention, comparison and outcome process. Searches were undertaken using Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science up to and including May, 2016 to identify potential studies.

Results

A total of seven papers met the a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria of this review. The overall rate of significant AVN in 441 patients (538 hips) was 10% at a mean length of follow-up of 7.6 years (5–18.8) following closed reduction. This finding can be used to inform the feasibility of future intervention studies, and act as a baseline for which surgeons to compare their results to a ‘standard’.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am
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Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B - Current Issue

The journal highlights important recent developments from the world's leading clinical and research institutions. The journal publishes peer-reviewed papers on the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric orthopedic disorders. It is the official journal of IFPOS (International Federation of Paediatric Orthopaedic Societies).

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Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageThe complete Beighton criteria, commonly used to establish the diagnosis of generalized ligamentous laxity (GLL), include nine discrete examination maneuvers. However, busy examiners may perform only a single maneuver (e.g. passive apposition of the thumb to the forearm) as a rapid method of assessment. We hypothesize that the use of a single-joint hypermobility test does not reliably identify the presence of GLL. Healthy patients 2–18 years old presenting to a general pediatric orthopaedic clinic were screened for participation. Exclusion criteria included the presence of a systemic illness, neuromuscular disease, and inability to complete the examination. Subjects were assessed for GLL according to the Beighton criteria, using a cutoff score of 5. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and likelihood ratio were calculated for the thumb-to-forearm apposition test with the composite Beighton score used as the gold standard. Two hundred and four patients were included in the study, 111 females and 93 males, with an average age of 10.7 years. The prevalence of GLL was 13.3%. When thumb-to-forearm apposition was performed unilaterally, the PPV was poor (34%). Conversely, the NPV was excellent (99%). Sensitivity of thumb-to-forearm motion was extremely high (99%), although the specificity of this test was modest (67%). The likelihood ratio was fair (+3.3). Performing the test bilaterally did not significantly change its utility. Thumb-to-forearm apposition testing was equally effective in identifying the presence of GLL in males and females. When performed in isolation, assessment of thumb-to-forearm apposition has a poor PPV, excellent NPV, and modest likelihood ratio. It is an extremely sensitive test, with only fair specificity. Other upper extremity tests of GLL perform similarly. Therefore, while single tests like thumb-to-forearm apposition may be helpful for ‘ruling out’ GLL, they are less reliable at identifying it correctly. When single tests are used to identify GLL in either clinical or research settings, the results should be interpreted with caution. Level of evidence Level I (diagnostic).
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageWe investigated the correlation between the musculoskeletal features and the cardiovascular anomalies in pediatric patients affected by Marfan syndrome, in order to identify possible orthopedic deformities that could be a warning sign for severe aortic dilatation. Moreover, we analyzed the role of the orthopedic aspects in the early diagnosis of the disease in a pediatric population. Seventy-two patients from 3 to 14 years of age, underwent interdisciplinary evaluation that included an orthopedic and cardiological examination. At the orthopedic examination, we analyzed the musculoskeletal features included in the systemic score of the revised Ghent criteria. Cardiological evaluation included a transthoracic echocardiography with definition of the cardiac Z-score, which is an index that evaluates aortic diameter. A statistical analysis was performed. We identified a statistically significant correlation between the presence of pectus excavatum and cardiac Z-score ≥3 (P = 0.022). Clinically, this data means that pectus excavatum is frequently observed in patients with larger aortic root diameter. On the contrary, no statistically significant correlation was found between the other investigated musculoskeletal features and a pathological Z-score. In the pediatric population, the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome remains difficult because many clinical manifestations are age-dependent and the Ghent criteria, usually used for adults, are not reliable in children. Our results show that the presence of pectus excavatum could help in the early identification of patients at greater risk of developing possibly fatal aortic disease. However, it is always indicated to screen all patients with Marfan syndrome for cardiac abnormalities, even in absence of pectus excavatum.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageThis study aimed to comparatively evaluate the quality of life scores of patients with pediatric flexible flatfoot (PFF) according to the use of foot orthoses. We also aimed to compare quality of life scores of children and their parents. Nonobese children aged between 5 and 10 years old who were diagnosed as PFF according to physical and radiological examinations were included in this cross-sectional comparative study. All children and their parents completed the Turkish translation of Oxford ankle foot questionnaire (OxAFQ) which contains four domains (physical, school and play, emotional, and footwear). Patients were grouped according to the use of foot orthoses (group I: no foot orthoses group and group II: foot orthoses group). Comparison of OxAFQ scores demonstrated no significant differences between the two groups. However, the mean emotional scores of parents were significantly lower in group II (P = 0.007). In group I, the mean emotional score of children was significantly lower compared to their parents’ scores (P = 0.001). In group II, the mean physical score of children was significantly lower compared to their parents’ scores (P = 0.003). According to our results, we observed no significant difference in terms of quality of life scores between children using foot orthoses and not using foot orthoses. However, we observed significantly lower emotional scores in parents whose children were using foot orthoses. We recommend that physicians should be aware of low physical scores in children with PFF and should inform parents about this situation rather than considering foot orthoses to relieve parents’ concern about foot deformity.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageThe purposes of this article are to describe common masking inaccuracies, provide a standard methodology for correcting inaccuracies, and report intra/interclinician reliability when novice and experts mask foot pressures for children with clubfoot. Foot pressures from 26 children (ages 2.6–12.9 years) with unilateral clubfoot were utilized. Three raters were used for intra/interclinician reliability: one expert masker with 8 years of experience and two novice maskers. For children with unilateral clubfoot, automated masking was inaccurate in 4% of trials on the unaffected side and 24% of trails on the affected side. Novice and expert maskers report good–excellent reliability (interclass correlation coefficient range 0.61–1.0) when identifying and correcting inaccurate masks. To obtain accurate and reliable foot pressure data, it is recommended to first utilize an automasking technique and apply manual editing. This is the first study to present a standard methodology for foot pressure mask editing, the first to present the incidence of mask inaccuracies and the first to present foot pressure masking reliability in children with clubfoot.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageThis review aimed to investigate gross motor skill development in children with congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) following the Ponseti method of casting and bracing. Summary of evidence revealed through a systematic search of electronic databases completed in May 2019. A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was used to report and conduct the study. The McMaster Critical Review Form was used to critically appraise included studies and a descriptive synthesis of the results is reported. Inclusion criteria for studies included participants aged above 4 years, with a diagnosis of CTEV, treated via the Ponseti method and followed up with valid gross motor outcome measures. The comparator was a control group of typically developing children, or reference data. The searches resulted in 619 unique articles. Eight studies (retrospective cohort/case control studies) met inclusion criteria. There were nine different outcome measures used with 29 domains being relevant to this review. Synthesis of the findings found no significant difference between the gross motor skills of children with CTEV treated with Ponseti and typically developing children. The balance domains of three measures were consistently lower for the CTEV group versus controls/normative data. Yet, it is still demonstrated that most gross motor skills are within the typically developing range. It must be considered, however, that there is a spectrum of severity of CTEV and overall gross motor function should be monitored.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageLateral column lengthening is a common surgical procedure for addressing symptomatic pes planovalgus foot deformity. For more severe cases, the use of a calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis (CCDA) can allow for more powerful correction. Previous reports have cited an increased risk of graft collapse with loss of correction when this procedure is performed without supplemental hardware fixation. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes of CCDA in children with and without supplemental locking fixation. A retrospective review from 2008 to 2016 of CCDA procedures with and without supplemental fixation was performed. The primary endpoint was graft collapse. Secondary objectives included evaluation of radiographic loss of correction, hardware failure, pain at 1-year follow-up, reoperations, and changes in the foot loading pattern foot per pedobarography. Twenty-nine feet in 24 patients were eligible for review. Supplemental locked fixation was used in 18 feet [hardware (HW)], with the remaining 11 feet managed without fixation [no hardware (NoHW)]. The overall failure rate on the basis of graft collapse and loss of correction was 55% (56% for the HW group, 55% for the NoHW group). Eleven patients (61%) in the HW group experienced hardware failure, with six (33%) of these requiring hardware removal. Fifty-six percent of the HW group and 45% of the NoHW group reported continued pain at 1-year follow-up. One patient from each group underwent revision arthrodesis. Supplemental locked fixation did not provide additional benefit in preventing graft collapse and loss of correction in this cohort. Alternative strategies should be considered to improve the outcomes for this procedure.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageTreatment options for patients with severe forms of proximal femoral focal deficiency include limb salvage procedures or foot ablation and use of a prosthesis. In patients with amputation, an ipsilateral knee arthrodesis can provide an efficient lever arm that is easy to contain in a prosthetic socket. We performed a retrospective review of proximal femoral focal deficiency patients treated at a single institution with knee arthrodesis. From 1986 to 2018, 26 patients (18 males, eight females) met study inclusion criteria (mean follow-up 13.2 years). Aitken C or D deformities were present in 65% of extremities. Ten patients had concomitant knee fusion with foot ablation (mean age 4.3 years). Fifteen patients had staged procedures with initial foot ablation (mean age 1.3 years) followed by a knee arthrodesis (mean age 4.7 years). One patient was managed with knee arthrodesis and retention of a three-ray foot. Subsequent realignment osteotomies were required in six patients to correct progressive malalignment with growth, often due to retained physis or incomplete physeal resection during the arthrodesis. In severe forms of proximal femoral focal deficiency, a straight residual limb can be achieved with foot ablation and knee arthrodesis to improve weight-bearing alignment in an above knee prosthesis. Progressive deformity, which may interfere with prosthetic fitting and require repeat osteotomy, may occur if complete excision of the physis is not achieved.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageSevere infant osteogenesis imperfecta requires osteosynthesis. Intramedullary tibia’s osteosynthesis is a technical challenge given the deformity and the medullar canal’s narrowness. We describe an extramedullary technique: ‘In-Out-In’ K-wires sliding. We performed an anteromedial diaphysis approach. The periosteum was released while preserving its posterior vascular attachments. To obtain a straight leg, we did numerous osteotomies as many times as necessary. K-wires (‘In’) were introduced into the proximal epiphysis, and the medial malleolus (‘Out’) bordered the cortical and (‘In’) reach their opposite metaphysis. K-wires were cut, curved and impacted at their respective epiphysis ends to allow a telescopic effect. All tibial fragments are strapped on K-wires, and the periosteum was sutured over it. Our inclusion criteria were children with osteogenesis imperfecta operated before 6 years old whose verticalization was impossible. Seven patients (11 tibias) are included (2006–2016) with a mean surgery’s age of 3.3 ± 1.1 years old. All patients received intravenous bisphosphonates preoperatively. The follow-up was 6.1 ± 2.7 years. All patients could stand up with supports, and the flexion deformity correction was 46.7 ± 14.2°. Osteosynthesis was changed in nine tibias for the arrest of telescoping with flexion deformity recurrence and meantime first session-revision was 3.8 ± 1.7 years. At revision, K-wires overlap had decreased by 55 ± 23%. Including all surgeries, three distal K-wires migrations were observed, and the number of surgical procedures was 2.5/tibia. No growth arrest and other complications reported. ‘In-Out-In’ K-wires sliding can be considered in select cases where the absence of a medullary canal prevents the insertion of intramedullary rod or as a salvage or alternative procedure mode of fixation. It can perform in severe infant osteogenesis imperfecta under 6 years old with few complications and good survival time.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageIncreased dural ectasia and vertebral thinning in the lumbosacral spine are common in Marfan syndrome. Dural ectasia is unchanged in middle-aged patients, who have stopped growing. Therefore, evaluation from childhood to adulthood is mandatory. Sixteen patients [four men and 12 women; mean age:17.7 (8.6–33.5) years] with dural ectasia at final follow-up [mean follow-up: 10.4 (5.0–16.7) years] were enrolled. Dural sac diameter (DD)/vertebral diameter (VD) were measured on MRI or CT images of midline sagittal slices at the level of dural ectasia between L5 and S3. The widest part of the dural sac was evaluated with Fattori grading: grade 0, normal; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe dural ectasia. At final follow-up, dural ectasia was observed at L5 in 3, S1 in 9, S2 in 14, and S3 in 11 patients. Respective changes in DD/VD from primary to final follow-up were L5: 21.7–24.2 mm/29.1–27.9 mm; S1: 17.0–18.6 mm/21.0–19.5 mm; S2: 15.5–19.6 mm (P
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageTo elucidate an up-to-date insight and derive clear treatment guidelines for Blount’s disease deduced from critical analysis of 146 surgical case series. Cases were presented and analyzed separately under its two basic clinical groups and the author further derived four subcategories under each of these two groups; the first basic group was the early onset clinical variant; infantile tibia vara (ITV) included 56 cases. The second group was the late onset clinical variant; late onset tibia vara (LOTV) included 90 cases. Different operative procedures used for treatment of these cases were proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO), temporary eight-plate proximal lateral tibial hemiepiphyseodesis (PLTH), or medial plateau elevation either on a monomodal or multimodal line of treatment. After a mean follow-up period of ~5 (2–12) years, the results were critically analyzed using case series descriptive analysis. In ITV variant, both PTO and temporary eight-plate PLTH monomodal line of treatment gave satisfactory results for de-novo (stages I, II, and III) subcategory while multimodal line of treatment was needed for achieving satisfactory results for neglected (stages IV, V, and VI) and relapsed subcategories. For LOTV variant, PTO monomodal line of treatment gave satisfactory results when applied for treatment of its de-novo subcategory. The derived treatment guidelines for Blount’s disease can be of value for recruiting the most suitable treatment modality for each case entity of the disease, leading to satisfactory outcome with prevention of recurrence.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageThe pullout strength of the pedicle screws after direct vertebral rotation (DVR) maneuver is not known. This biomechanical study was performed to quantitatively analyze the pullout strength of a pedicle screw after DVR maneuver using human cadaveric vertebrae. Thoracic vertebral bodies from three cadavers were harvested and stripped of soft tissues. Thirty pedicles of 15 vertebrae were separated into two groups after bone mineral density measurements. Polyaxial 5.5 mm pedicle screws with appropriate length were inserted with a freehand technique for each pedicle. One Kirschner wire was inserted to the anterior part of each vertebral corpus the half depth of each corpus was embedded into PVC pipes using polyester paste. In the DVR group, each screw was pulled horizontally with 2 kg (~20 N) load over a screwdriver rigidly attached to the screw, and a DVR maneuver was simulated. The control group did not load with a DVR maneuver. Samples were placed on a universal testing machine and pullout loads were measured. The Mann–Whitney U test was utilized, and the P value
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageAdolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF) usually require surveillance in the pediatric ICU (PICU). Some reports have documented evidence of hypomagnesemia following PSF at PICU. Little has been studied about relationship between AIS and postoperative serum magnesium (Mg+2) levels. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of hypomagnesemia in AIS patients admitted to PICU after PSF. IRB approved the cross-sectional study of AIS patients admitted to PICU after PSF from January 2016 to May 2017. Serum electrolyte levels of phosphorous, calcium, sodium, potassium and hemoglobin were taken preoperative and 24 h postoperative and compared with postoperative magnesium levels. Blood volume reinfused from cell saver return (CSR), estimated blood loss (EBL), volume of fluids intraoperative and average of vertebra levels operated were charted and compared with postoperative magnesium levels. A total of 46 AIS patients undergoing PSF met inclusion criteria, with an average age of 15 years (78% female). Postoperatively, hypomagnesemia was reported in 24/46 patients (53%). No association was found between hypomagnesemia and serum electrolyte (phosphorous, calcium, sodium and potassium) or hemoglobin levels. In addition, no statistical association was found with age, operative time, vertebrae level fused, CSR, EBL and volume of fluids intraoperatively. Fifty-three percent of pediatric patients developed hypomagnesemia after surgical correction for AIS. Further investigation of this electrolyte disturbance will likely result in a useful clinical tool for physician in the management of AIS.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageCurrent trends in the surgical treatment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) involve the use of high dependency unit (HDU) in the postoperative period. The British Scoliosis Society also recommends the availability of HDU support in the postoperative period for these patients. However, this practice may lead to unexpected theatre cancellations due to lack of availability of HDU bed on the day of surgery. We also hypothesize that this practice may eventually lead to longer inpatient stay for the patients. All AIS patients at our unit are managed on a paediatric ward postoperatively, without HDU support. The primary aim of the study therefore is to evaluate whether operating on AIS patients without HDU support is well tolerated practice. Secondary aims were to evaluate patient related outcomes, including length of stay (LOS), and postoperative analgesia requirements. Adolescents aged 12–17 years with idiopathic scoliosis deformity who were treated with posterior instrumented scoliosis (PIS) correction were included in this prospective cohort study. The study period was between 12 November 2012 and 6 August 2018. Twenty-two patients were included in the HDU group and 33 patients in the non-HDU group. These were two matched cohort groups. Data were collected on complication rates, LOS, analgesic requirements, time to bowel opening, and attainment of physiotherapy goals in the immediate postoperative period. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical software R (3.4.3). There were no complications in the non-HDU group and one pneumothorax in the HDU group. There was a significant reduction in the LOS from 7.4 days (SD ±2.3, CI 0.012) days, to 5.8 (SD ±1.4, CI 0.01) days in the non-HDU group (P = 0.0001). There was no significant difference statistically or clinically in opiate usage between the HDU group, 115 mg (SD ±60.7, CI 0.8) and the non-HDU group 116 mg (SD ±55.8, CI 0.6) (P = 0.609). However, there was an improvement in pain scores in the non-HDU group where oral analgesics only were used (P = 0.002). A cost saving of £2038.80 per AIS case was made in the non-HDU group. AIS surgery can be performed safely without the need for HDU support in healthy adolescents. An oral analgesia-based enhanced recovery regime compares favourably to patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and indicates these patients can be managed safely with strong multidisciplinary support on a paediatric ward.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageLimited evidence is available in the literature regarding the fate of the unfused structural thoracic curve following selective thoracolumbar-lumbar curve fusion (SLF) in Lenke 6C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Therefore, we compared the outcomes of SLF between Lenke 6C and 5C AIS patients. We retrospectively reviewed 31 patients Lenke 5C (n = 18) and Lenke 6C (n = 13) AIS patients who underwent SLF at a single institution. Multiple radiological parameters were measured using whole-spine radiographs taken before and after surgery and at the last follow-up visit. SRS-22 at the final follow-up was obtained for clinical assessment. A total of 31 patients with a mean age of 14.6 years at operation who were followed for a mean of 6.4 years were included in this study. The Cobb angle of the unfused thoracic curve was spontaneously corrected immediately following SLF and increased slightly but not significantly at the final follow-up in both groups (Lenke 5C: pre 33.0°, post 14.4°, final 19.4°, Lenke 6C: pre 46.1°, post 31.7°, final 34.2°). At every time point, the thoracic Cobb angle was significantly larger in the Lenke 6C. SRS-22 score at the final follow-up, including the self-image domain, did not differ between the two groups. In this study, SLF for Lenke 6C AIS achieved a significant spontaneous correction of the unfused thoracic curve and yielded a comparable SRS-22 result at the final follow-up to that of Lenke 5C. Our findings suggest that SLF is a viable treatment option for Lenke 6C AIS.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageOur objective is to report and define ‘operative time’ in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) posterior spinal fusion surgeries. Documenting key times during surgery are important to compare operative risks, assess learning curves, and evaluate team efficiency in AIS surgery. ‘Operative time’ in literature has not been standardized. Systematic review was performed by two reviewers. Keywords included operative time, duration of surgery, and scoliosis. One thousand nine hundred six studies were identified, 1092 duplicates were removed and 670 abstracts were excluded. Of the 144 articles, 67 met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were evaluated for number of patients, operative time, and definition of operative time. Meta-analysis was not performed due to confounders. Of the 67 studies (6678 patients), only 14 (1565 patients) defined operative time, and all specified as incision to closure. From these 14 studies, the median operative time was 248 minutes (range 174–448 minutes). In the 53 studies (5113 patients) without a definition, one study reported time in a non-comparable format, therefore, data were analyzed for 52 studies (5078 patients) with a median operative time of 252 minutes (wider range 139–523 minutes). A clear standardized definition of operative or surgical time in spine surgery does not exist. We believe that operative time should be clearly described for each published study for accurate documentation and be defined from incision time to spine dressing completion time in order to standardize study results. Level of evidence: IV.
Posted: May 1, 2021, 12:00 am
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