Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics - Most Popular Articles

imageBackground: Cast immobilization remains the mainstay of pediatric orthopaedic care, yet little is known about the incidence of cast-related skin complications in children treated with cast immobilization. The purposes of this quality improvement project were to: (1) establish a baseline rate of cast-related skin complications in children treated with cast immobilization, (2) identify trends in children who experienced cast-related skin complications, (3) design an intervention aimed at decreasing the rate of cast-related skin complications, and (4) determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods: A prospective interrupted time-series design was used to determine the incidence of cast-related skin complications overtime and compare the rates of skin complications before and after an intervention designed to decrease the incidence of cast-related heel complications. All consecutive patients who were treated with cast immobilization from September 2012 to September 2014 were included. A cast-related skin complications data collection tool was used to capture all cast-related skin complications. A high rate of heel events was noted in our preliminary analysis and an intervention was designed to decrease the rate of cast-related skin complications, including the addition of padding during casting and respective provider education. Results: The estimated cast-related skin events rate for all patients was 8.9 per 1000 casts applied. The rate for the total preintervention sample was 13.6 per 1000 casts which decreased to 6.6 in the postintervention sample. When examining the heel-only group, the rate was 17.1 per 1000 lower extremity casts applied in the preintervention group and 6.8 in the postintervention group. Conclusions: Incorporating padding to the heel of lower extremity cast was an effective intervention in decreasing the incidence of cast-related skin complications in patients treated with cast immobilization. Level of Evidence: Level II.
Posted: December 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome is a rare inherited condition, which is frequently fatal in infancy. Those patients who survive into childhood demonstrate a complex progressive deformity of the long bones, with high rates of recurrence after initial successful correction. Because of the rarity of the condition there is, at present, limited evidence on the most appropriate treatment. Methods: We describe our experience in the management of 4 patients, who underwent correction of deformity and fixation with Fassier-Duval telescopic rods. Results: In this series we have seen good correction of deformity and maintenance of alignment, with improvement in the walking ability of children treated with this technique. Conclusion: Fassier-Duval rodding has a role in the prevention of recurrence of deformity and should be considered as a means to reduce the number of operative procedures required. Level of Evidence: Level IV—therapeutic.
Posted: December 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) is widely used to reduce postoperative neurological complications during scoliosis correction. IONM allows intraoperative detection of neurological insults to the spinal cord and enables surgeons to react in real time. IONM failure rates can reach 61% in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Factors decreasing the quality of IONM signals or making IONM impossible in CP patients undergoing scoliosis correction have not been well described. Methods: We categorized IONM data from 206 children with CP who underwent surgical scoliosis correction at a single institution from 2002 through 2013 into 3 groups: (1) “no signals,” if neither somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP) nor transcranial motor-evoked potentials (TcMEP) could be obtained; (2) “no sensory,” if no interpretable SSEP were obtained regardless of interpretable TcMEP; and (3) “no motor,” if no interpretable TcMEP were obtained regardless of interpretable SSEP. We analyzed preexisting neuroimaging, available for 93 patients, and neurological status of the full cohort against these categories. Statistical analysis of univariate and multivariate associations was performed using logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with significance set at P
Posted: December 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageStudy Design: A retrospective review of prospective data Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare operative and nonoperative patients with similar curve magnitudes to determine motivating factors associated with surgical correction in “smaller” curves. Summary of Background Data: Despite traditional treatment recommendations on major curve angle measurements, many patients with thoracolumbar/lumbar (TH/L) curves of smaller magnitudes are unhappy and desire correction. Methods: A prospectively enrolled multicenter adolescent idiopathic scoliosis database was queried. Patients with major TH/L curves
Posted: December 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Although supracondylar humerus fractures are common in young children, the incidence in adolescents is much lower. As a result, there is a paucity of literature to guide treatment. The purpose of this study was to review the treatment and outcomes for a consecutive series of distal humerus fractures in adolescents and to compare outcomes between patients treated with percutaneous skeletal fixation and those treated with open reduction and fixation. Methods: A retrospective review of patients 10 to 17 years of age who underwent surgical treatment for a distal humerus fracture from 2005 to 2014 was performed. Patients with medial epicondyle fractures and those with insufficient follow-up to document union or return of motion were excluded. Medical records were reviewed to collect demographic data as well as operative approach and method of fixation. Clinical outcomes included range of motion, time to maximum motion, and complications [nerve dysfunction, heterotopic ossification (HO), need for secondary surgery]. Radiographs were reviewed to determine time to union as well as coronal and sagittal alignment. Results: One hundred eighteen adolescents with displaced distal humerus fractures were identified. Eighty-one met inclusion criteria. Forty-four of these were classified as extra-articular [Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) 13-A], and 37 were intra-articular fractures (10 OTA 13-B and 27 OTA 13-C). Although not statistically significant, closed treatment with percutaneous fixation of extra-articular fractures resulted in greater flexion-extension arc of motion at final follow-up (128 vs. 119 degrees, P=0.17) and demonstrated more rapid return of motion (2.8 vs. 3.9 mo, P=0.05) when compared with open treatment despite a longer duration of immobilization and less formal physical therapy. Complications such as HO (P=0.05), nerve dysfunction (P=0.02), and secondary surgery (P=0.001) were more common in the open treatment group. Closed treatment with percutaneous fixation of intra-articular fractures was performed in younger patients of similar size (12.8 vs. 14.4 y, P
Posted: December 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Clinical evidence regarding the ability of braces to decrease the risk of curve progression to surgical threshold in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) continues to strengthen. Unfortunately, there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the impact of brace wear on psychosocial well-being or the impact of psychological well-being on brace wear adherence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate psychosocial well-being, in particular body image and quality of life (QOL), and brace wear adherence in female AIS patients undergoing brace treatment. Methods: The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) was a multicenter, controlled trial using randomized and preference assignments into an observation or brace treatment group. BrAIST patients were skeletally immature adolescents diagnosed with AIS having moderate curve sizes (20 to 40 degrees). Patients in the bracing group were instructed to wear a thoracolumbosacral orthosis, at least 18 h/d. Scores on the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire and the PedsQL4.0 Generic Scales from 167 female BrAIST patients who were randomized to brace treatment (n=58) and patients who chose brace treatment (n=109) were analyzed. Results: At baseline and at 12 months, no differences were found between the least-adherent brace wear group (
Posted: December 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Our objective was to quantify blood loss and transfusion requirements for high-dose and low-dose tranexamic acid (TXA) dosing regimens in pediatric patients undergoing spinal fusion for correction of idiopathic scoliosis. Previous investigators have established the efficacy of TXA in pediatric scoliosis surgery; however, the dosing regimens vary widely and the optimal dose has not been established. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed electronic medical records for 116 patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery for idiopathic scoliosis by a single surgeon and were treated with TXA. In total, 72 patients received a 10 mg/kg loading dose with a 1 mg/kg/h maintenance dose (low-dose) and 44 patients received 50 mg/kg loading dose with a 5 mg/kg/h maintenance dose (high-dose). Estimated blood loss and transfusion requirements were compared between dosing groups. Results: Patient characteristics were nearly identical between the 2 groups. Compared with the low-dose TXA group, the high-dose TXA group had decreased estimated blood loss (695 vs. 968 mL, P=0.01), and a decrease in both intraoperative (0.3 vs. 0.9 units, P=0.01) and whole hospitalization (0.4 vs. 1.0 units, P=0.04) red blood cell transfusion requirements. The higher-dose TXA was associated with decreased intraoperative (P=0.01), and whole hospital transfusion (P=0.01) requirements, even after risk-adjustment for potential confounding variables. Conclusions: High-dose TXA is more effective than low-dose TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements in pediatric idiopathic scoliosis patients undergoing surgery. Level of Evidence: Level—III, retrospective cohort study.
Posted: December 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Scoliosis has been shown to have detrimental effects on pulmonary function, traditionally measured by pulmonary function tests, which is theorized to be correlated to the distortion of the spine and thorax. The changes in thoracic volume with surgical correction have not been well quantified. This study seeks to define the effect of surgical correction on thoracic volume in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Methods: Images were obtained from adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis enrolled in a multicenter database (Prospective Pediatric Scoliosis Study). A convenience sample of patients with Lenke type 1 curves with a complete data set meeting specific parameters was used. Blender v2.63a software was used to construct a 3-dimensional (3D) computational model of the spine from 2-dimensional calibrated radiographs. To accomplish this, the 3D thorax model was deformed to match the calibrated radiographs. The thorax volume was then calculated in cubic centimeters using Mimics v15 software. Results: The results using this computational modeling technique demonstrated that surgical correction resulted in decreased curve measurement as determined by Cobb method, and increased postoperative thoracic volume as expected. Thoracic volume significantly increased by a mean of 567 mm3 (P
Posted: December 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: The natural history of scoliosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is progressive and debilitating if neglected. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes related to spinal deformity surgery in patients with DMD over a 30-year period. Methods: This was a single center retrospective study of all operatively treated scoliosis in DMD patients over 30 years. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. Owing to changes in instrumentation over time, patients were divided into 2 groups: Luque or pedicle screws (PS) constructs. Radiographic, perioperative variables, pulmonary function test (preoperatively and postoperatively), and complication data were evaluated. Results: There were 60 subjects (Luque: 47, PS: 13). The Luque group was on average 13 years old, 53 kg, and had 7 years of follow-up. Coronal Cobb was 31±12 degrees preoperatively, 16±11 degrees at first postoperatively, and 21±15 degrees at final follow-up (P≤0.001). Pelvic obliquity was 7±6 degrees preoperatively, 5±5 degrees at first postoperatively (P=0.43), and 5±4 degrees at final follow-up (P=0.77). The majority of this group was fused to L5 (45%) or the sacrum (49%). The PS group was on average 14 years old, 65 kg, and had 4 years of follow-up. Coronal Cobb was 43±19 degrees preoperatively, 12±9 degrees at first postoperatively (P≤0.001), and 12±8 degrees at final follow-up. Pelvic obliquity was 6±5 degrees preoperatively, 3±3 degrees at first postoperatively (P=0.06), and 2±2 degrees at final follow-up (P=0.053). The majority were fused to the pelvis (92%). Both groups’ pulmonary function declined with time. Both groups had high complication rates (Luque 68%; PS group 54%). The Luque group had more implant-related complications (26%); the PS group had a higher rate of early postoperative infections (23%). Conclusions: Over a 30-year period of operative treatment of scoliosis in DMD, both PS constructs and Luque instrumentation improved coronal Cobb. The PS group had improved and maintained pelvic obliquity. Both groups had high complication rates. Level of Evidence: Level IV—therapeutic.
Posted: December 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable skeletal disorder characterized by bone fragility and short stature that is usually due to mutations in 1 of the 2 genes that code for collagen type I α-chains. The association between hip dysplasia and OI has not been systematically investigated. In this single-center study, we retrospectively reviewed all cases of OI associated with hip dysplasia to describe clinical characteristics and the effect of therapy. Methods: We reviewed the charts of 687 patients with OI who were seen at the Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal between 1999 and 2013 to identify patients with a diagnosis of hip dysplasia. Clinical characteristics and the course after therapeutic interventions were extracted from the charts. Results: Hip dysplasia was diagnosed in 8 hips of 5 patients (4 boys, 1 girl; age at diagnosis ranged between 3 wk and 27 mo old). The prevalence of hip dysplasia and OI was therefore 0.87% (per patient). In 4 of the 5 patients (80%), OI was caused by mutations affecting the C-propeptide of collagen type I, which is otherwise rare in OI. Among the 26 patients with C-propeptide mutations followed at our institution, 4 (15%) had hip dysplasia. Pavlik harness treatment was attempted in 2 patients (3 hips) but was not effective in either case and resulted in avascular necrosis of 1 hip. Femoral varus derotational shortening osteotomies using a telescopic rod were performed in all 8 hips along with a closed reduction in 4 hips and an open reduction in 4 hips. Concomitant pelvic osteotomies were performed in 2 hips (1 patient). Surgery resulted in redislocation of 1 hip; all other surgically treated hips remained reduced. Conclusions: Clinical screening for hip dysplasia is difficult in OI owing to the bowing of the proximal femur and the risk of causing fractures. OI patients with positive C-propeptide mutation should therefore be screened for hip dysplasia by use of ultrasound. Presence of a C-propeptide mutation appears to be a risk factor for hip dysplasia (80%). It appears that Pavlik harness treatment is not useful in children with OI. The usual treatment of children with OI who pull to stand or started walking with femoral deformity is femoral osteotomy and rodding. In case of associated hip dysplasia with a dislocation, open reduction of the hip and a possible concomitant pelvic osteotomy appears to be a valid management option. Level of Evidence: Level IV.
Posted: October 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageIntroduction: Traumatic hip dislocations in children and adolescents require prompt concentric reduction. Incomplete reduction with or without retained osteochondral fragments has traditionally been addressed with open reduction. We report on the use of arthroscopy to remove loose bodies and reduce enfolded soft tissues to obtain concentric reduction in the pediatric and adolescent population. Specific note is made of underlying pathology and arthroscopic intervention. Methods: After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, we performed a retrospective review of patients under the age of 19 who were treated with hip arthroscopy following hip dislocation reduction at a single children’s hospital from 2006 to 2013. Clinic notes, operative reports, radiographic images, and arthroscopic photographs were reviewed. Results: Seven patients were identified (aged 8 to 17) who underwent hip arthroscopy after a posterior hip dislocation. Intra-articular bone fragments were found in 6 of 7 patients and 5 of 7 patients had an incongruent hip joint identified by imaging before surgery. The predominant pathology was avulsion of a small bony fragment attached to the posterior capsular labral soft-tissue complex, which became enfolded and blocked reduction (5 of 7 patients). In all cases, the enfolded soft tissue was reduced without soft tissue or bone repair. Additional loose osteochondral fragments were removed, and in 2 cases an avulsed ligamentum teres was debrided. Average follow-up was 10 months. No avascular necrosis or recurrent instability was identified in any case. Conclusions: When incongruent hip joints were arthroscopically evaluated after traumatic dislocation, a consistent pattern of interposition of avulsed posterior bone fragment with attached capsule and labrum was found. Reduction of the capsulolabral complex without repair provided satisfactory short-term outcomes. Arthroscopic treatment of such cases was effective and well tolerated and could lead to considerably less postoperative pain and surgical morbidity than open surgical treatment. Level of Evidence: Level IV—case series.
Posted: October 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageIntroduction: Ulnohumeral elbow dislocation is a rare elbow injury in children. We reviewed a large cohort of pediatric ulnohumeral elbow dislocations and sought to identify risk factors associated with poor functional outcomes. Methods: Medical charts and radiographs were reviewed for all acute pediatric ulnohumeral elbow dislocations evaluated at our facility during a 7-year period. Charts were abstracted for demographics, injury characteristics, treatments, and complications. Functional outcomes were assessed at minimum 6-week follow-up using a combination of symptoms and elbow range of motion (Roberts criteria). Results: A total of 145 cases qualified for inclusion and were analyzed. The average age at injury was 11 years (range, 5 to 18 y), with equal distribution between male and female individuals. Concomitant elbow fractures were identified in 114 (80%) cases; the most common was the medial epicondyle (80/134, 60%). Treatment consisted of open reduction and fixation of associated fracture(s) in 59% of fracture cases. At an average follow-up of 3.7 months, the average range of motion was −5-degree extension to 126-degree flexion. Immobilization for longer than 2 weeks resulted in a loss of elbow extension (P
Posted: October 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: External tibial torsion (ETT) is a common bony deformity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The current recommended treatment is tibial derotation osteotomy (TDO) to improve gait biomechanics. Satisfactory short-term results after TDO have been reported but long-term results have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome following TDO to correct ETT in ambulatory children with CP. Methods: Following IRB approval, gait kinematics and passive range of motion measurements were retrospectively evaluated in children with spastic CP who underwent TDO due to ETT comparing preoperative (E0), short-term postoperative (E1; 1 to 3 y post), and long-term postoperative (E2; >5 y post) results. Limbs were categorized as corrected, undercorrected, or overcorrected at both E1 and E2, by comparing mean tibial rotation (MTR) in gait to a group of typically developing children. Age at surgery, E0 MTR, E0 gait velocity, gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) score, and foot deformity were evaluated to determine their influence on long-term results. Results: The study sample consisted of 43 legs (with E0 and E2) and 22 legs (with E0, E1, and E2). The mean age at surgery was 10.3±3.4 years (range, 6 to 19.2 y). In the group MTR trended toward improvement moving from −26±17 degrees (E0, external negative) to −16±16 degrees (E1) and relapsed to −23±17 degrees at the long term (P=0.071, E0/E1; P=0.589, E0/E2). Improvement was also seen in the transmalleolar axis (P=0.074), mean ankle rotation, and mean foot orientation (P
Posted: October 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: The optimal fixation strategy for unstable pediatric tibia fractures is unclear with some favoring elastic intramedullary nails (EIN) and others favoring plate and screws [open reduction internal fixation (ORIF)]. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes and complications of skeletally immature patients undergoing surgical stabilization of the tibia with either EIN or ORIF. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on all patients undergoing EIN or ORIF of a diaphyseal fracture at a single pediatric level I trauma center between 2010 and 2016. Patients were included if they had open growth plates, no intra-articular or physeal involvement, and radiographic follow-up until union. Patient demographic, injury, radiographic, and surgical data were recorded. Outcome measures included achievement of union, time to healing, residual deformity, complications, need for additional procedures, and return to sport. Statistical analysis was performed with alpha set at P5 degrees (15% vs. 41%; P=0.03), and lower rates of subsequent surgery (35% vs. 91%; P
Posted: October 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Currently, hip surveillance programs for children with cerebral palsy exist in Europe, Australasia, and parts of Canada, but a neuromuscular hip surveillance program has yet to be adopted in the United States. The purpose of this study was to report the current orthopaedic practice of hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy, identify areas of practice variation, and suggest steps moving forward to generate guidelines for national neuromuscular hip surveillance. Methods: The entire membership of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) was surveyed in 2016 for information regarding their practice for hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy. Detailed information regarding timing, frequency, and practice of hip surveillance was obtained in answers to 26 different questions. Results: A survey response rate of 27% was obtained (350/1300 members) during the study period. The majority of respondents treated pediatric patients exclusively (97%), worked in an academic practice (70%), and was affiliated with a university (76%). In total, 18% (69/350) of respondents followed a regular cerebral palsy hip surveillance program, about half of whom (44%, 30/69) had adopted the Australian guidelines. Respondents agreed that a dislocated hip in a child with cerebral palsy was painful (90% agreement) and should be prevented by hip surveillance (93% agreement). Furthermore, 93% of respondents indicated they would follow a national surveillance program if one was in place. Age (79%), Gross Motor Function Classification System (81%), and migration percentage (MP) (78%) were all identified as critical elements to a hip surveillance program. The majority of respondents felt that a hip “at risk” for hip displacement had a MP between 20% and 30% (57% of respondents), whereas surgery should be utilized once the MP exceeded 40% (50% of respondents). Conclusions: Results from this survey demonstrate 90% of respondents agree that a dislocated hip could be painful and 93% would follow a national surveillance program if available. At a societal level, we have the ability to standardize cerebral palsy hip surveillance, thereby decreasing practice variation and improving quality of care delivery. Levels of Evidence: Level V.
Posted: October 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imagePurpose: The ideal canal fill for flexible intramedullary fixation of pediatric femoral shaft fractures is considered to be 80% based upon relatively few clinical studies. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between the summed nail to intramedullary canal diameter (ND/MCD) ratio and alignment at radiographic union following flexible intramedullary nailing (FIMN) of pediatric femoral shaft fractures. Methods: An Internal Review Board approved, retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients who sustained a femoral shaft fracture treated by retrograde, stainless steel FIMN was performed at a single level 1 pediatric trauma center from 2005 to 2012. Preoperative radiographs were analyzed to determine fracture pattern, location, and isthmic canal diameter. ND/MCD ratio was calculated using the sum of the known nail diameters and the measured isthmic diameter. Radiographs at bony union were reviewed to measure shortening, coronal angulation, and sagittal angulation. ND/MCD ratio was analyzed to determine correlative factors with final radiographic outcomes. Results: In total, 261 children underwent retrograde FIMN at an average age of 8.2 years (range, 2.2 to 17.0 y). ND/MCD ratio of ≥80% was seen in 108 (41.4%) patients. When compared with those with
Posted: October 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Patellar dislocations are one of the most common knee injuries in children and adolescents and are challenging to treat. Recurrence rates are relatively high and many patients have functional limitations, even in the absence of a recurrent instability episode. The purpose of this study was to examine the risk factors in patients with first-time patellofemoral dislocations to develop a prediction model of recurrence. Methods: A single institution retrospective review of all patients with a first-time patellofemoral dislocation from 2002 to 2013 was performed. Demographic risk factors (age, sex, laterality, mechanism of injury, and history of contralateral patellar dislocation) and radiographic risk factors (increased patella height, trochlear dysplasia, and skeletal immaturity) were examined. Patella height was measured using Caton-Deschamps index (CDI). Trochlear dysplasia was assessed using the 2-grade Dejour classification and skeletal immaturity was assessed based on the distal femur and proximal tibia physis (open, closing, or closed). Results: In total, 266 knees in 250 patients were included in the study. Of these, 222 (83.5%) were treated nonoperatively and 44 (16.5%) were treated surgically. Of the knees treated nonoperatively, 77 (34.7%) had a recurrence. Significant risk factors for recurrence on univariate analysis were age 14 years and below, history of contralateral patellar dislocation, trochlear dysplasia, skeletal immaturity, and a CDI>1.45. Multivariate analysis was performed and trochlear dysplasia and skeletal immaturity were the most significant factors with odds ratios of 3.56 and 2.23, respectively. The presence of all 4 multivariate risk factors (CDI>1.45, history of contralateral patellar dislocation, trochlear dysplasia, and skeletal immaturity) had a predicted risk of recurrence of 88%. The presence of any 3 risk factors had a predicted risk of about 75% and the presence of any 2 risk factors had a predicted risk of about 55%. Conclusions: Trochlear dysplasia, skeletal immaturity, CDI>1.45, and a history of contralateral patellar dislocation were all significant risk factors for recurrence in patients with first-time patellar dislocations. A predictive model for calculation of recurrence risk was developed for any combination of the different risk factors. This information is useful when counseling patients and their families after first-time patellar dislocation about prognosis and potential outcomes. Level of Evidence: Level IV—retrospective case series.
Posted: October 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: In 2015, a multicenter study group proposed a treatment algorithm for pediatric Monteggia fractures based upon the ulnar fracture pattern. This strategy recommends surgical stabilization for all complete ulna fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether an initial nonoperative approach to pediatric Monteggia fractures resulted in poorer outcomes and a higher rate of complications. Methods: This institutional review board approved retrospective study evaluated all Monteggia fractures presenting to a level 1 pediatric trauma center between 2008 and 2014. Chart and radiographic reviews were performed on 94 patients who met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 5.5 years (range, 1 to 13 y). The mean clinical follow-up was 18 weeks. Major complications were defined as those requiring an unplanned second procedure (other than implant removal) or that may result in long-term disability (residual radial head subluxation/dislocation). Univariate (P36.5 degrees as the only primary predictor of requiring surgical stabilization. Overall, good outcomes were achieved in all patients with few major complications. Conclusions: Although treatment algorithms are intended to minimize complications and maximize good outcomes, we believe that an unintentional consequence of the recently proposed pediatric Monteggia fracture treatment guideline may be the overtreatment of these injuries. In our cohort, the majority of patients were able to avoid the operating room and surgical implants without compromising outcomes or complications. This more conservative approach, however, requires close monitoring of patients in the first 3 weeks during which most reductions were lost. Level of Evidence: Level IV—therapeutic studies, case series.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageHemiepiphyseodesis for angular deformities in the growing child is effective and avoids the complications of osteotomies and gradual correction with external fixation. This article reviews applications of screw hemiepiphyseodesis for coronal and sagittal plane deformities in the lower extremity. Indications, technical pearls, and pitfalls are discussed.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageIn the last 35 years, orthopaedic surgeons have witnessed 3 major advances in the technique of limb lengthening: “distraction osteogenesis” facilitated by Gavriil Ilizarov method and infinitely-adaptable circular fixator with fine-wire bone fragment fixation; the introduction of the “6-strut” computer program-assisted circular fixators to effect complex deformity correction simultaneously; and the development of motorized intramedullary lengthening nails. However, the principles and associated complications of these techniques are on the basis of observations by Codivilla, Putti, and Abbott from as much as 110 years ago. This review notes the contribution of these pioneers in limb lengthening, and the contribution of Thor Heyerdahl principles of tolerance and diversity to the dissemination of Ilizarov principles to the Western world.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageThis article presents an approach to the musculoskeletal problems of children with amyoplasia. Although a very high percentage of children with have ambulatory potential, activity and function decline over time. Strong consideration of external resources and support available to the child and family are important considerations in recommending surgery as is the timing of interventions to align with childhood development.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageAlthough the core principles of managing infantile Blount disease generally remain unchanged, treatment modalities have evolved over the years. Consensus has yet to be reached regarding the efficacy of bracing. Children with Blount disease commonly have advanced bone age, which may impact the timing and magnitude of (over) correction of angular deformity. Techniques of growth modulation, based on the tension band principle, continue to gain popularity. Although there are limited reports in the last decade on proximal tibial osteotomy for this developmental disorder, both acute and gradual correction remain viable treatment options in the appropriate setting. In certain older children (>7 y old) with advanced stages of the disease, a medial hemiplateau elevation combined with lateral proximal tibial hemiepiphysiodesis may be needed to address the epiphyseal deformity. Given the possibility of unpredictable proximal tibial physeal activity, all children with Blount disease should be followed at regular intervals till skeletal maturity. To provide sufficient granularity for pooled analyses and help establish evidence-based clinical guidelines, standardization of reporting clinical outcomes among children with Blount disease is encouraged.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageAlthough cubitus varus has been regarded as a purely cosmetic problem in the pediatric population, symptomatic elbow instability, and ulnar neuropathy from the mechanical axis malalignment have been reported in adults. This overview discusses the biomechanical axis disruption that leads to soft tissue and morphologic bony alterations in the elbow and offers a compelling argument for corrective osteotomy to treat pediatric cubitus varus.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageSuccessful limb reconstruction surgery not only relies on surgical skill but probably more on assessment and planning before intervention. A clear appreciation of the child as a whole, an understanding of natural history and the ability to carefully evaluate the patient clinically are key to successful treatment. The appropriate use of investigations and the ability to analyze, plan and execute a treatment plan is challenging and requires experience and training. This paper outlines some of the steps required to assess the patient with a complex limb deformity.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
No abstract available
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageTechniques change, but principles are forever. The techniques used to correct lower extremity deformities in children should be based on the principles of assessment and management of those deformities. This writing is a summation of the introductory lecture on deformity correction that highlights some of those principles.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageAmputation is not a defeat or failure of treatment, but an effective management strategy for certain conditions in the pediatric population. The principles of management, especially in the pediatric population, have not changed. Current surgical strategies focus on providing an optimal residual limb for prosthetic fitting. New technology provides improvement in the design and fabrication of prosthetic devices.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageThe author describes step-by-step the technique for Fassier-Duval rodding of both femurs and tibiae in osteogenesis imperfecta. Preoperative evaluations and planning, postoperative care and place of bisphosphonates as explained. Emphasis is given on the different tricks to avoid intraoperative problems.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageMultiple versions of ring fixators are currently available to orthopaedic surgeons. Although the traditional Ilizarov-type ring fixator is still available, many surgeons are now using computer-assisted hexapod frames. There has been a recent surge in the number of different hexapod ring fixators on the market. This article will review some of the new trends in ring fixator hardware and software as well as discuss possible future directions of ring fixator development.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageArthrogryposis multiplex congenital (AMC) is a descriptive term for a group of conditions that all share the characteristic of congenital contractures. There are an estimated 400 discrete diagnoses that can lead to a child being born with arthrogryposis. The 2 biggest categories of conditions are amyoplasia and distal arthrogryposis, which combined make up ∼50% to 65% of all diagnoses within the AMC subset. Amyoplasia, the most common AMC condition, seems to be a nongenetic syndrome, leading to very characteristic upper and lower limb contractures. The distal arthrogryposes, in contrast, have an underlying genetic abnormality, which in many cases seems to target the fast twitch muscles of the developing fetus. Classifying AMC is a difficult task, given the broad range of conditions represented. Four different classification schemes are presented.
Posted: July 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imagePatients with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita have a characteristic upper extremity resting posture consisting of internal rotation of the shoulders, elbow extension, flexed wrists, thumb-in palm deformities, and variable degrees of finger contractures. Treatment of these patients is aimed at improving independence and performance of activities of daily living. Although each area needs to be assessed independently for the most appropriate surgical procedure, often multiple areas can be addressed at the same operative setting. This limits the number of anesthetic exposures and cast immobilization time. The following is a synopsis of treatment strategies presented at the second international symposium on Arthrogryposis which took place in St Petersburg in September 2014.
Posted: July 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageLower extremity deformities of patients with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita present a wide spectrum of severity and deformity combinations. Treatment goals range from merely ensuring comfortable seating and shoe wear, to fully independent and active ambulation, but the overarching intention is to help realize the patient’s greatest potential for independence and function. Treatment of hip and knee contractures and dislocations has become more interventional, whereas treatment of foot deformities has paradoxically become much less surgical. This article synopsizes the treatment strategies presented in September 2014 in Saint Petersburg, Russia at the second international symposium on arthrogryposis.
Posted: July 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: The multiplier method (MM) is frequently used to predict limb-length discrepancy and timing of epiphysiodesis. The traditional MM uses complex formulae and requires a calculator. A mobile application was developed in an attempt to simplify and streamline these calculations. We compared the accuracy and speed of using the traditional pencil and paper technique with that using the Multiplier App (MA). Methods: After attending a training lecture and a hands-on workshop on the MM and MA, 30 resident surgeons were asked to apply the traditional MM and the MA at different weeks of their rotations. They were randomized as to the method they applied first. Subjects performed calculations for 5 clinical exercises that involved congenital and developmental limb-length discrepancies and timing of epiphysiodesis. The amount of time required to complete the exercises and the accuracy of the answers were evaluated for each subject. Results: The test subjects answered 60% of the questions correctly using the traditional MM and 80% of the questions correctly using the MA (P=0.001). The average amount of time to complete the 5 exercises with the MM and MA was 22 and 8 minutes, respectively (P
Posted: April 1, 2017, 12:00 am
No abstract available
Posted: March 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Children with flatfeet are frequently referred to pediatric orthopaedic clinics. Most of these patients are asymptomatic and require no treatment. Care must be taken to differentiate patients with flexible flatfeet from those with rigid deformity that may have underlying pathology and have need of treatment. Rigid flatfeet in infants may be attributable to a congenital vertical talus (CVT); whereas those in older children and adolescents may be due to an underlying tarsal coalition. We performed a review of the recent literature regarding evaluation and management of pediatric flatfeet to discuss new findings and suggest areas where further research is needed. Methods: We searched the PubMed database for all papers related to the treatment of pediatric flatfoot, tarsal coalition, and CVT published from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014, yielding 85 English language papers. Results: A total of 18 papers contributed new or interesting findings. Conclusions: The pediatric flexible flatfoot (FFF) remains poorly defined, making the understanding, study, and treatment of the condition extremely difficult. Pediatric FFF is often unnecessarily treated. There is very little evidence for the efficacy of nonsurgical intervention to affect the shape of the foot or to influence potential long-term disability for children with FFF. The treatment of tarsal coalition remains challenging, but short-term and intermediate-term outcome studies are satisfactory, whereas long-term outcome studies are lacking. Management of the associated flatfoot deformity may be as important as management of the coalition itself. The management of CVT is still evolving; however, early results of less invasive treatment methods seem promising. Level of Evidence: Level 4—literature review.
Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageBackground: The treatment of radial neck fractures with complete displacement or severe displacement and an angle of >30 degrees is controversial. The currently used methods, including the Metaizeau technique, are associated with drawbacks such as imperfect reduction, epiphyseal damage, and delayed functional recovery. To overcome these drawbacks, we used absorbable rod fixation followed by early functional training for the treatment of displaced radial neck fractures in children. Methods: In this study, 68 patients (age, 4 to 12 y; average, 8.4 y; average angle, 58 degrees; average displacement, 53%) with radial neck fractures with Salter-Harris grades II to IV underwent lateral elbow open reduction and absorbable rod fixation. At 3 weeks postoperatively, the patients’ plaster casts were removed, and functional training was started. Results: Anatomic reduction was achieved in all patients. We followed-up 68 patients for 6 months to 4 years (average, 41 mo). No cases of radial nerve injury, radial bone necrosis, myositis ossificans, and postoperative infection were observed. The functional recovery was “excellent” in 43 patients, “good” in 13 patients, “average” in 12 patients, and “bad” in 0 patients, according to the Morrey evaluation standard. Conclusion: Open reduction with absorbable rod fixation for the treatment of displaced radial neck fractures in children was feasible and was a choice in children. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic II.
Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageMost proximal humerus fractures in skeletally immature individuals are treated nonoperatively with excellent functional results. Extensive remodeling of the proximal humerus and the wide arc of motion of the glenohumeral joint accommodate a large degree of fracture displacement and angulation. The treatment of severely displaced fractures and/or severely angulated fractures continues to be debated. Older patients and those with significantly displaced fractures may benefit from surgery because of their inability to remodel displacement and angulation during their limited remaining growth. The decision to treat a proximal humerus fracture in a skeletally immature patient operatively versus nonoperatively is dependent on the following 3 factors: displacement, bone age, and capacity to remodel. There is an increasing trend toward treating severely displaced and severely angulated fractures surgically, especially in older patients and adolescents. Smooth wires, percutaneous threaded wires, cannulated screws, and retrograde elastic stable intramedullary nailing are acceptable options for fixation.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageBackground: As casts are routinely used in pediatric orthopaedics, casts saws are commonly used to remove such casts. Despite being a viewed as the “conservative” and therefore often assumed safest treatment modality, complications associated with the use of casts and cast saws occur. Methods: In this manuscript, we review the risk factors associated with cast saw injuries. Results: Cast saw injuries are thermal or abrasive (or both) in nature. Thermal risk factors include: cast saw specifications (including a lack of attached vacuum), use of a dull blade, cutting in a concavity, too thin padding, and overly thick casting materials. Risk factors associated with abrasive injuries include: sharp blades, thin padding, and cutting over boney prominences. Because nearly all clinicians contact the skin with the blade during cast removal, appropriate “in-out technique” is critical. Such technique prevents a hot blade from remaining in contact with the skin for any significant time, diminishing the risk of burn. Similarly, using such technique prevents “dragging the blade” that may pull the skin taught, cutting it. It may be useful to teach proper technique as perforating a cast rather than cutting a cast.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageThe treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures, particularly length-unstable fractures, continues to be an area of controversy in patients from age 6 to skeletal maturity. Submuscular bridge plating is an alternative that allows for stable internal fixation while minimizing soft tissue disruption. We describe a surgical technique that has simplified both implantation and removal. This technique provides a stable construct in comminuted and unstable fracture patterns allowing for early mobilization with minimal complications.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageFemoral shaft fractures are common injuries in the pediatric and adolescent age groups. Rigid intramedullary nailing is an excellent treatment option for older children and adolescents, particularly for length-unstable fractures and larger patients (>49 kg). Appropriate indications, contraindications, and preoperative assessment are described. The rigid nailing surgical technique is detailed including positioning, operative steps, pearls, and pitfalls. Complications and the reported outcomes of lateral trochanteric entry nailing are reviewed from the published series.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imagePediatric ankle injuries are common, especially in athletes; however, the incidence of syndesmosis injuries in children has been scarcely reported. Injuries to the ankle syndesmosis, termed “high ankle sprains,” can affect high-level and recreational athletes and have been related to delayed return to play, persistent pain, and adult injuries have been associated with long-term disability. Syndesmotic injuries do occur in children, especially those who participate in sports that involve cutting and pivoting (football, soccer) or sports with rigid immobilization of the ankle (skiing, hockey). Unstable pediatric syndesmosis injuries requiring surgical fixation are often associated with concomitant fibular fracture in skeletally mature children. Physician vigilance and careful clinical examination coupled with appropriate radiographs can determine the extent of the injury in the majority of circumstances.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
The POSNA Quality, Safety and Value Initiative (QSVI) formally started with POSNA board approval in early 2011. The initial vision statement was: “To lead in defining our members’ value based clinical care. To partner with hospital based and orthopedic organizational efforts to guarantee safe, high quality outcomes for our patients. To communicate our initiatives and results cooperatively with payer, credentialing, and compliance organizations to improve pediatric orthopedic care in North America.”
Posted: July 1, 2015, 12:00 am
Surgical site infections (SSIs) make up about 23% of hospital-acquired infections and may cost up to 10 billion dollars annually in direct medical expenses. St. Luke’s Health System of Boise, Idaho implemented a committee to reduce its incidence of SSIs, focusing on the orthopaedic and neurosurgical departments. After identifying risk factors associated with patient medical comorbidities, operating room practices, and type of procedure, Project Zero recommended changes. The implementation of a preoperative clinic and protocol management of environmental and procedural factors reduced the hospitals rate by 50%. Project Zero continues to research best practices for clean room management and preventative care, striving to reach the overall goal of zero infections.
Posted: July 1, 2015, 12:00 am
Patients, surgeons, and staff are exposed to ionizing radiation in pediatric orthopaedic surgery from diagnostic studies and imaging associated with procedures. Estimating radiation dose to pediatric patients is based on complex algorithms and dose to surgeons and staff is based on dosimeter monitoring. Surgeons can decrease radiation exposure to patients with careful and thoughtful ordering of diagnostic studies and by minimizing exposure intraoperatively. Surgeon and staff radiation exposure can be minimized with educational programs, proper shielding and positioning intraoperatively, and prudent use of intraoperative imaging. Overall, better awareness among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons of our role in radiation exposure can lead to improvements in radiation safety.
Posted: July 1, 2015, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Radial neck fractures in children are rare, representing 5% of all elbow pediatric fractures. Most are minimally displaced or nondisplaced. Severely displaced or angulated radial neck fractures often have poor outcomes, even after open reduction, and case series reported in literature are limited. The aim of the study is to analyze the outcomes of patients with a completely displaced and angulated fracture who underwent open reduction when closed reduction failed. Methods: Between 2000 and 2009, 195 patients with radial neck fractures were treated in our institute. Twenty-four cases satisfied all the inclusion criteria and were evaluated clinically and radiologically at a mean follow-up of 7 years. At follow-up, the carrying angle in full elbow extension and the range of motion of the elbow and forearm were measured bilaterally. We recorded clinical results as good, fair, or poor according to the range of movement and the presence of pain. Radiographic evaluation documented the size of the radial head, the presence of avascular necrosis, premature physeal closure, and cubitus valgus. Results: Statistical analysis showed that fair and poor results are directly correlated with loss of pronation-supination (P=0.001), reduction of elbow flexion-extension (P=0.001), increase of elbow valgus angle (P=0.002), necrosis of the radial head (P=0.001), premature physeal closure (P=0.01), and associated lesions (olecranon fracture with or without dislocation of the elbow) (P=0.002). Discussion: In our cases, residual radial head deformity due to premature closure of the growth plate and avascular necrosis were correlated with a functional deficit. Associated elbow injury was coupled with a negative prognosis. In our series, about 25% of patients had fair and 20% had poor results. Outcomes were good in 55% and felt to represent a better outcome than if the fracture remained nonanatomically reduced with residual angulation and/or displacement of the radial head. This study reports the largest series of these fractures with a combination of significant angulation and displacement of the fracture requiring open reduction. We feel that open reduction is indicated when the head of the radius is completely displaced and without contact with the rim of the metaphysis.
Posted: December 1, 2014, 12:00 am
The purpose of this seminar was to review a large range of lower extremity and neuromuscular disorders. Because of the diversity of the topics covered, including clubfoot and vertical talus treatment, management of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, and limb lengthening in dwarfism, this review will focus on the neuromuscular subsection reviewing the current management of the muscular dystrophies, myelomeningocele, and cerebral palsy.
Posted: October 1, 2014, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Spinal bracing is widely utilized in patients with moderate severity adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with the goal of preventing curve progression and therefore preventing the need for surgical correction. Bracing is typically initiated in patients with a primary curve angle between 25 and 40 degrees, who are Risser sign 0 to 2 and 25 degrees primary curve Cobb angle. Curve progression was monitored with minimum 2-year follow-up. Results: Sixteen patients in the observation group and 21 patients in the bracing group completed 2-year follow-up. All patients in the observation group progressed to fulltime bracing threshold. In the nighttime bracing group, 29% of the patients did not progress to 25 degrees primary curve magnitude. Rate of progression to surgical magnitude was similar in the 2 groups. Conclusions: Risser 0 patients presenting with mild idiopathic scoliosis are at high risk for progression to >25 degrees primary curve magnitude. Treatment with the Charleston nighttime bending brace may reduce progression to full-time bracing threshold. No difference in progression to surgical intervention was shown between nighttime bracing and observation for small curves. Level of Evidence: Level II—therapeutic study (prospective comparative study).
Posted: September 1, 2014, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Much attention has been given to the relationship between various training factors and athletic injuries, but no study has examined the impact of sleep deprivation on injury rates in young athletes. Information about sleep practices was gathered as part of a study designed to correlate various training practices with the risk of injury in adolescent athletes. Methods: Informed consent for participation in an online survey of training practices and a review of injury records was obtained from 160 student athletes at a combined middle/high school (grades 7 to 12) and from their parents. Online surveys were completed by 112 adolescent athletes (70% completion rate), including 54 male and 58 female athletes with a mean age of 15 years (SD=1.5; range, 12 to 18 y). The students’ responses were then correlated with data obtained from a retrospective review of injury records maintained by the school’s athletic department. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that hours of sleep per night and the grade in school were the best independent predictors of injury. Athletes who slept on average
Posted: March 1, 2014, 12:00 am

Latest Results for Journal of Children's Orthopaedics

The latest content available from Springer

Abstract

Purpose

Amputations and fitting surgery have a long history in children with limb deficiencies. With the current developments in limb reconstruction and new techniques in prosthetics, the indications for amputation and fitting surgery might have shifted, but still have a very important role in creating high functional performance, optimal participation and quality of life. The purpose of this current concepts article is to give an overview of the indications, dilemmas and technical considerations in the decision-making for amputation and fitting surgery. A special part of this overview is dedicated to the indications, variations and outcomes in rotationplasties.

Methods

The article is based on the experience of a multidisciplinary reconstruction team for children with complex limb deficiencies, as well as research of the literature on the various aspects that cover this multidisciplinary topic.

Results

For those children with a more severe limb deficiency, reconstruction is not always feasible for every patient. In those cases, amputation with prosthetic fitting can lead to a good result. Outcomes in quality of life and function do not significantly differ from the children that had reconstruction. For children with a postaxial deficiency with a femur that is too short for lengthening, and with a stable ankle and foot with good function, rotationplasty offers the best functional outcome. However, the decision-making between the different options will depend on different individual factors.

Conclusions

Amputations and rotationplasties combined with optimal prosthesis fitting in children with more severe limb deficiencies may lead to excellent short- and long-term results. An experienced multidisciplinary team for children with complex limb deficiencies should guide the patient and parents in the decision-making between the different options without or with prosthesis.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Background

An accessory navicular is generally asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on radiographs. The natural history of an accessory navicular in the pediatric population is largely undescribed.

Methods

The medical charts of 261 pediatric subjects undergoing 2620 annual unilateral radiographs of the foot and ankle (age range 0.25–7 years at enrollment) were reviewed. Radiographs were examined to determine the incidence of accessory navicular, with focus on the age at appearance and, if present, the age at fusion. Skeletal maturity was graded based on ossification pattern of the calcaneal apophysis.

Results

Accessory navicular was identified in 19 subjects (n = 12 males, n = 7 females, p = 0.43), appearing significantly earlier in the female subjects than in the male ones (p = 0.03). Fusion was documented in 42% (n = 8) of subjects, occurring at a mean (±standard deviation) age of 12.5 ± 1.0 years in females and 14.1 ± 2.7 years in males. Skeletal maturity grading demonstrated comparable stages of maturity at the time of fusion between male and female subjects (p = 0.5). Based on an analysis of 160 subjects with serial images extending at least one standard deviation past the mean age of appearance, the overall incidence was 12%.

Conclusion

Our review of pediatric subjects showed that accessory navicular appeared earlier in females than in males. Fusion occurred in 42% of patients at comparable levels of skeletal maturity between the male and female subjects. No significant differences in overall incidence, skeletal maturity, fusion rate, or age of fusion were noted between the male and female subjects.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Background

Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a significant and potentially devastating complication following the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The reported rate of AVN following closed reduction for DDH ranges from 4 to 60%, and the resultant influence on hip development remains unclear.

Purpose

A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to evaluate the frequency of AVN after more than 5 years of follow-up in children that underwent closed reduction at younger than 2-years of age for DDH.

Methods

The search strategy was formulated with key-concepts and keywords identified using the patient problem, intervention, comparison and outcome process. Searches were undertaken using Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science up to and including May, 2016 to identify potential studies.

Results

A total of seven papers met the a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria of this review. The overall rate of significant AVN in 441 patients (538 hips) was 10% at a mean length of follow-up of 7.6 years (5–18.8) following closed reduction. This finding can be used to inform the feasibility of future intervention studies, and act as a baseline for which surgeons to compare their results to a ‘standard’.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

For decades, the classic indication for limb lengthening has been reserved for anisomelia that was expected to reach or exceed 5 cm at maturity. Epiphysiodesis was reserved for discrepancies in the 2–5 cm range. With the increasing sophistication of fixators, including rail, hexapod, and hybrid, complex deformities may be corrected simultaneously while moderate to extreme lengthening is achieved. More recently, iterations of telescoping intramedullary rods have further strengthened our armamentarium. Meanwhile, permanent epiphysiodesis techniques, both open and percutaneous, have yielded to more versatile and reversible tethering of one (angle) or both (length) sides of a physis. While the techniques of guided growth and callotasis seem to be diametrically opposed, they may be used in a tandem or complementary fashion, for the benefit of the patient. If treatment is undertaken during skeletal growth, one must be aware that issues remain regarding the accurate assessment of skeletal maturity and prediction of the ultimate outcome. Therefore, there is potential for over- or undercorrection. Reversible and serial guided growth now enable the surgeon to commence intervention at a comparatively young age, for the purpose of optimizing limb alignment and reducing the ultimate discrepancy. Frame application may be delayed or, in some cases, avoided altogether. With the limb properly aligned at the outset of lengthening, elective use of a telescoping intramedullary nail may now be favored over a frame accordingly.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Objectives

In the last decades, limb lengthening has not been limited to the treatment of patients with dwarfism and deformities resulting from congenital anomalies, trauma, tumor and infections, but, has also been used for aesthetic reasons. Cosmetic lengthening by the Ilizarov method with circular external fixation has been applied to individuals with constitutional short stature who wish to be taller.

Materials and methods

From January 1985 to December 2010, the medical records of 63 patients with constitutional short stature (36 M, 27F; 126 legs) who underwent cosmetic bilateral leg lengthening using a hybrid advanced fixator according to the Ilizarov method, were reviewed, retrospectively. The mean age was 24.8 years, while the mean preoperative height was 152.6 cm. Paley’s criteria were used to evaluate problems, obstacles, and complications from the time of surgery until 1 year after frame’s removal.

Result

The mean lengthening achieved in all patients was 7.2 cm (range: 5–11 cm), with a mean duration of treatment of 9 months and 15 days (range: 7–18 months). The mean follow-up time was 6.14 years (range 1–10).

Conclusion

The cosmetic leg lengthening was helpful to all patients, improving their social capabilities and self-confidence. All patients considered their stature as normal and they reported satisfaction and gratification with important changes in their professional and personal life. Cosmetic leg lengthening may raise some ethical objections and for that reason patients should be well informed about all the risks and complications related to this type of surgery.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

When we lengthen a bone in a child, the parents and the family circle are often obsessed by the amount a lengthening obtained. However, for the surgeon, lengthen a bone is quite pretty easy, but dealing with the joints above and below the lengthening area can be very challenging. Indeed, during the lengthening process, muscles and tendons will be progressively stretched, leading to potential joint contracture or even dislocation. The objective of the surgeon will be to avoid this situation. The first mean at disposal is the physiotherapy in order to help the joints to be more supple and to maintain their range of motion. The second mean is the soft tissue release before the surgery, during the lengthening process, or after the hardware removal when the capacities of physiotherapy are overdone. As a last resort, it can be helpful to bridge the joint to protect it during the lengthening.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Successful deformity correction depends on establishing the aetiology of the deformity. Clinical examination, additional laboratory tests and consultation with other experts may be needed to complete the workup. Imaging studies should include full-length standing X-rays in all relevant planes, and additional imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may add information on bone morphology and growth plates’ anatomy. Based on the data, analysis of the deformity and length differences is performed, followed by prediction of deformities at skeletal maturity. The patients need to be followed up on a regular basis and repeat analysis should be done to improve the accuracy of prediction for final limb length difference. Limb deformity and lengthening correction plans are drawn and updated during follow-up, to achieve straight and equal lower limbs at maturity. Timely surgical procedures are performed using appropriate techniques and the most modern technologies available. These principles are discussed and demonstrated with case examples.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Background

Reimer’s migration percentage (MP) is the most established radiographic risk factor for hip migration in cerebral palsy (CP), and it assists surgical decision-making. The head–shaft angle (HSA) measures the valgus of the head and neck in relation to the shaft and may also be a useful predictor of hip migration at a young age. This study first defined normal values and investigated whether the head–shaft angle (HSA) is a continuous risk factor for hip migration in CP.

Methods

Three hundred and fifty AP pelvic radiographs of 100 consecutive children comprising the hip surveillance programme in our region were analysed for MP and HSA. Inclusion criteria were children with spastic CP and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels of III–V, along with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. The mean age was 8.8 (range 3–18) years and the mean follow-up time was 7.5 (range 5–10) years. Radiographs of 103 typically developing children (TDC) were selected for the control group. The reliability of the measurements was determined. A random effects analysis was used to assess the relationship between MP and HSA for all data and for MP > 40 %.

Results

The TDC cohort had a mean HSA of 157.7° whilst that for the CP cohort was 161.7°. The value declined with age in both groups but remained consistently higher in the CP group. A random effects analysis considering the longitudinal data showed that there was no significant effect of HSA on MP. Similarly, when excluding CP patients with MP < 40 %, there was no significant effect of HSA on MP.

Conclusions

This study found no correlation between HSA and hip migration in children with CP in this age group. Using the HSA as a routine radiographic measure in the management pathway across childhood does not offer any added value. Early enrolment onto the hip surveillance programme could offer a better prediction of hip migration using the HSA at a very young age.

Level of evidence

II retrospective prognostic study.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am
Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

Tibialis anterior tendon transfers (TATT) are commonly performed in young children following Ponseti casting for clubfeet. The classic TATT involves advancing the tendon through a hole drilled in the ossified cuneiform. The aim of this study was to determine if tendons transferred through unossified bones have untoward effects on subsequent bone development.

Method

Twenty-five piglets underwent one of five surgical procedures. An 18-gauge needle was then used to place a tunnel through the bony or cartilaginous portion of the calcaneus (through direct visualization) and isolated slips of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) were placed through the tunnels, as determined by surgical procedure. Radiographic and/or histologic evaluations of the calcaneal apophyses were then performed. A discrete (1–4) and dichotomous “Normal” or “Abnormal” scoring system was developed and its reliability assessed to grade the appearance of the calcanei. Calcaneal appearances following the surgical procedures were then compared with controls. The average load to failure of a subset of transferred tendons was then compared using an MTS machine.

Results

The proposed apophyseal grading system (1–4) demonstrated an intraclass correlational coefficient (ICC) for consistency of 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 < ICC < 0.95] and ICC for agreement of 0.91 (95% CI 0.86 < ICC < 0.95), indicating strong agreement and consistency. Similarly, Fleiss’ kappa for the 1–4 scoring system was found to be 0.67, indicating substantial agreement between reviewers. When the 1–4 system was translated into the dichotomous scheme “Normal” and “Abnormal”, the kappa value increased to 0.94, indicating strong agreement. Forty-six apophyses (13 control and 33 operative) were assessed using this scoring scheme. Apophyseal transfers were significantly more abnormal than controls (p < 0.0001), while no difference in abnormalities was found following tunnel placement alone (p = 1). Mechanical testing of the tendons transferred to bone or through the cartilaginous apophysis demonstrated no significant differences (p = 0.2).

Conclusion

Tendon transfers through unossified bones altered subsequent bone development.

Significance

While the long-term consequence of these structural changes is unknown, these findings suggest that tendon transfers through unossified bones should be avoided and alternative methods of tendon fixation explored.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

Instability of the knee is a common finding in patients with congenital limb deficiency. The instability can be attributed to soft tissue abnormalities, frontal, sagittal or rotational deformity of the lower limb and bony dysplasia of the patella or of the femoral condyles. In most of the cases, these pathomorphologic changes stay asymptomatic in daily activity. However, instability can appear during deformity correction and bone-lengthening procedures, leading to flexion contracture or subluxation of the knee.

Methods

A review of pediatric orthopaedic literature on different factors of knee instability, state-of-the-art treatment options in congenital limb deficiency and in cases of lengthening-related knee subluxation is presented and the authors’ preferred treatment methods are described.

Results

Leg lengthening and deformity correction in patients with congenital limb deficiencies can be achieved with various techniques, such as guided growth, monolateral or circular external fixation and intramedullary lengthening nails. Radiographic assessment and clinical examination of the knee stability are obligatory to estimate the grade of instability prior to surgical procedures. Preparatory surgery, as well as preventive measures such as bracing, bridging of the knee and intensive physical therapy, can help to avoid subluxation during lengthening in unstable knees.

Conclusions

Adequate surgical techniques, preventive measures and early detection of signs of subluxation can lead to good functional results in patients with congenital limb deficiency.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Limb-length discrepancies and extremity deformities are among the most common non-traumatic orthopaedic conditions for which children are hospitalised. There is a need to develop new treatment options for lower-limb length discrepancy in order to ameliorate treatment outcomes, avoid or reduce rates of complication and provide early rehabilitation. The authors report on the basic principles, experimental and clinical data, advantages, problems and complications of a combined technique associating the Ilizarov method and flexible intramedullary nailing (FIN) in limb lengthening and deformity correction in children. They describe features of the use of hydroxyapatite-coated intramedullary nails in patients with certain metabolic bone disorders and in cases where bone consolidation has been compromised. The advantages of bone lengthening using a combined technique (circular fixator plus FIN) are a lower healing index, quicker distraction-consolidation, a reduced rate of septic and bone complications, the ability to correct deformities gradually and the increased stability of bone fragments during the external fixation period and after frame removal.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Unlike external fixators, the use of solid intramedullary lengthening nails is restricted to defined anatomical preconditions, such as an adequate bone length. Furthermore, all deformity corrections except the lengthening procedure have to be implemented intraoperatively and cannot be adjusted postoperatively. Conversely, even complex deformity corrections can be performed using intramedullary devices after a thorough preoperative planning. For preparation of the intramedullary cavity as well as positioning of the lengthening nail according to the preoperative planning, reaming the medullary canal with rigid reamers which don’t follow the line of least resistance is inevitable. However, the application of solid lengthening nails might be limited, especially in children with ongoing epiphyseal growth, although a central perforation of the growth plate was shown to have no adverse effects on the growth potential. In cases with complex or multilevel deformities, an additional osteotomy and locking plate fixation could sometimes be a valuable solution in order to avoid external fixation. The low complication rate as well as the reduced compromising of soft tissues and periosteum render intramedullary lengthening nails the state-of-the-art procedure for limb lengthening in combination with deformity correction in patients who meet the anatomical preconditions.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Pin-tract infection (PTI) is the most commonly expected problem, or even an almost inevitable complication, when using external fixation. Left unteated, PTI will progress unavoidably, lead to mechanical pin loosening, and ultimately cause instability of the external fixator pin–bone construct. Thus, PTI remains a clinical challenge, specifically in cases of limb lengthening or deformity correction. Standardised pin site protocols which encompass an understanding of external fixator biomechanics and meticulous surgical technique during pin and wire insertion, postoperative pin site care and pin removal could limit the incidence of major infections and treatment failures. Here we discuss concepts regarding the epidemiology, physiopathology and microbiology of PTI in paediatric populations, as well as the clinical presentations, diagnosis, classification and treatment of these infections.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

Children with cerebral palsy often have musculoskeletal disorders involving the hip. There are several procedures that are commonly used to treat these disorders. Proximal femur prosthetic interposition arthroplasty (PFIA) is an option for non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy who have a painful, spastic dislocated hip. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the results of PFIA by examining treatment outcomes, complications, and overall effects on the child and their caregiver.

Methods

Charts were reviewed over a 5-year period at our institution. The focus of the data collection was pain, range of motion (ROM), and overall clinical outcome. Clinical outcome was graded as excellent, good, fair, and poor. Length of follow-up, presence of heterotopic ossification, femoral prosthesis migration, and information provided by competed caregiver questionnaires were analyzed.

Results

A total of 16 hips in 12 patients met the inclusion criteria. Average age at time of surgery was 12 years 1.2 months. Average follow-up was 40.4 months. Three hips required revision surgery. Average time before revision surgery was 16 months. Overall outcomes were excellent/good for seven hips and fair/poor for nine. Pain outcomes were excellent/good for nine hips and fair/good for seven. ROM outcomes were excellent/good for nine hips and fair/poor for seven. The majority of caregivers surveyed would recommend this procedure.

Conclusion

Clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of PFIA yielded variable results with this cohort of children with regards to pain and range of motion. Despite these varied results, the majority of caregivers were satisfied with the outcome and would recommend PFIA. PFIA is a salvage option for the painful, spastic dislocated hip, but significant evidence to prove its effectiveness over other salvage procedures is lacking. Based on our results, we conclude that PFIA has the ability to benefit children with cerebral palsy with an acceptable risk profile similar to that reported in recent publications.

Level of evidence IV; retrospective case-series.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

When treating slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), a smooth pin with a hook or a short threaded screw can be used to allow further growth, which could be important to prevent the development of impingement and early arthritis. The purpose of this investigation was to measure growth in three dimensions after fixation of SCFE.

Methods

Sixteen participants with unilateral SCFE, nine girls and seven boys with a median age of 12.0 years (range 8.4–15.7 years), were included. The slipped hip was fixed with a smooth pin with a hook, and the non-slipped hip was prophylactically pinned. At the time of surgery, tantalum markers were installed bilaterally on each side of the growth plate through the drilled hole for the pin. Examination with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) was performed postoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months. The position of the epiphysis in relation to the metaphysis was calculated.

Results

At 12 months, the epiphysis moved caudally, median 0.16 mm and posteriorly 2.28 mm on the slipped side, in comparison to 2.28 cranially and 0.91 mm posteriorly on the non-slipped side, p = 0.003 and p = 0.030, respectively. Both slipped and non-slipped epiphysis moved medially, 1.52 and 1.74 mm, respectively. A marked variation in the movement was noted, especially on the slipped side.

Conclusions

The epiphysis moved in relation to the metaphysis after smooth pin fixation, both on the slipped side and on the prophylactically fixed non-slipped side, implying further growth. The RSA method can be used to understand remodelling after ‘growth-sparing’ fixation of SCFE.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to evaluate shoulder function following minimally invasive subtotal subscapularis muscle and periarticular capsuloligamentous arthroscopic release in children with Erb’s palsy.

Methods

A prospective study was conducted on 15 consecutive children who underwent subtotal subscapularis muscle and periarticular capsuloligamentous arthroscopic release to treat internal rotation contracture of the shoulder joint after Erb’s palsy. Age at surgery ranged from 24 to 38 months (average 28.3) (2.4 years). All of the patients were assessed clinically and radiologically preoperatively and postoperatively at regular intervals. The Mallet scoring system was used to analyze the results.

Results

The mean external rotation improved from −24° to +46° (p = 0.001) at the last follow-up. Active internal rotation was preserved in all cases. At the final follow-up, there had been no loss of the external rotation gained and no recurrence of internal rotation contracture of the shoulder, and the mean Mallet score (total) had improved from 11 to 17 points (p = 0.001).

Conclusions

In children aged from 1 to 3 years, an arthroscopic release procedure alone may successfully restore function and yield a centered glenohumeral joint, which has a beneficial effect on glenoid remodeling.

Level of evidence

Level IV.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

In paediatric orthopaedics, deformities and discrepancies in length of bones are key problems that commonly need to be addressed in daily practice. An understanding of the physiology behind developing bones is crucial for planning treatment. Modulation of the growing bone can be performed in a number of ways. Here, we discuss the principles and mechanisms behind the techniques. Historically, the first procedures were destructive in their mechanism but reversible techniques were later developed with stapling of the growth plate being the gold standard treatment for decades. It has historically been used for both angular deformities and control of overall bone length. Today, tension band plating has partially overtaken stapling but this technique also carries a risk of complications. The diverging screws in these implants are probably mainly useful for hemiepiphysiodesis. We also discuss new minimally invasive techniques that may become important in future clinical practice.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

The epidemiology and risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) are still being refined. We investigated the local epidemiology of DDH in order to define incidence, identify risk factors, and refine our policy on selective ultrasound screening.

Methods

With a cohort study design, data were prospectively recorded on all live births in our region from January 1998 to December 2008. We compared data on babies treated for DDH with data for all other children. Crude odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to identify potential risk factors. Logistic regression was then used to control for interactions between variables.

Results

There were 182 children born with DDH (with a total of 245 dysplastic hips) and 37,051 without. The incidence was 4.9 per 1000 live births. Female sex (adjusted OR 7.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6–11.2), breech presentation (adjusted OR 24.3, 95% CI 13.1–44.9), positive family history (adjusted OR 15.9, 95% CI 11.0–22.9) and first or second pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5–2.3) were confirmed as risk factors (p < 0.001). In addition, there was an increased risk with vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 2.7, 1.6–4.5, p < 0.001) and post-maturity (OR 1.7, 1.2–2.4, p < 0.002).

Conclusions

One in 200 children born within our region requires treatment for DDH. Using both established and novel risk factors, we can potentially calculate an individual child’s risk. Our findings may contribute to the debate regarding selective versus universal ultrasound screening.

Level of Evidence

Prognostic Study: Level 1.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am
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Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B - Current Issue

imageThe aim of the present study is to present the results of the surgical management of late presenting cases of congenital muscular torticollis. Between 1990 and 2010, 31 cases of late presenting congenital muscular torticollis were managed surgically in our department. Postoperatively, head halter traction was applied for 10 days; a cervical brace was applied for 5 weeks, followed by a soft one collar for 3 months. The final result was assessed on the basis of the criteria of Cheng and Tang. In total, 84% of patients achieved an excellent final result and 16% of the patients achieved a good result. Our results indicated that in children older than 7 years, surgical release combined with appropriate orthosis and a structured physiotherapy regime can lead to satisfactory results.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageCalcified aponeurotic fibroma is a rare benign fibrous tumour with characteristic histopathological features commonly observed in children and adolescents. It usually involves the most distal part of the extremities. Despite being a benign tumour, it has a high risk of local recurrence. We report our experience treating four children with calcifying aponeurotic fibroma who underwent surgical excision of the tumour. Two of them developed a local recurrence: one required a surgical revision, whereas the other currently continues to be under observation. The incidence found over a 5-year period (2010–2015) may lead us to consider that this condition is not as rare as reported and may often be misdiagnosed.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageAcute osteomyelitis can be successfully treated with antibiotics alone. Surgery is utilized after failure of antibiotic treatment or if an abscess is present. Limited evidence exists with regard to whether intramedullary drainage is required in addition to the drainage of the subperiosteal abscess. We reviewed our 9-year experience of treating subperiosteal abscesses identifying 68 patients. Thirty patients underwent both intramedullary and abscess drainage, whereas 38 patients underwent drainage of the abscess alone at the initial procedure. Our analysis demonstrated a statistical significance (P=0.012) and odds ratio of 6.46 in favor of an intramedullary drainage to decrease risk for need for repeat surgical treatment.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageWe carried out a case–control study in children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) with and without suppurative complications discharged from our institution over an 11-year period to test the hypothesis that abscess formation was associated with a delayed presentation to care. Of 102 children with AHO, 54 abscesses were documented in 46 patients (25 bone, 29 muscle). A delay in presentation was not associated with abscess formation (6.5 vs. 5.0 days, P=0.26). Overall, 78% of all bone abscesses were visible on initial MRI. Consistent use of MRI at presentation may identify children with suppurative complications of AHO.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageThe epidemiology of pediatric acute osteomyelitis in the USA, such as annual hospitalization rates and disparities with respect to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, remains unknown. We obtained discharge records of hospitalized patients with acute osteomyelitis younger than 20 years of age from the Kids Inpatient Database for 2006, 2009, and 2012. We weighted the records to estimate the number of hospitalizations in the USA and calculated the annual rates of hospitalization because of acute osteomyelitis. We used a multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess the risk factors associated with the development of septic arthritis and bacteremia/septicemia. Overall annual hospitalization rates ranged from 1.34 to 1.66/100 000 children. Male-to-female ratios were 1.6−1.8. Black children, children aged 2, 7, and 12 years, and those living in very low median household income regions were more likely to have higher hospitalization rates. The lower limbs were the most frequent infection sites. Osteomyelitis at the pelvis/thigh, upper arm, hand, and forearm was significantly associated with the development of septic arthritis and bacteremia/septicemia. We determined the epidemiological patterns of pediatric acute osteomyelitis in the USA and identified the risk factors associated with the development of septic arthritis and bacteremia/septicemia. Level of Evidence: Level II.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageIntercalary biologic reconstructions using allogenic bone grafts remain a useful option in orthopedic oncology; however, these reconstructions are prone to fractures, and treatment is usually required involving surgical interventions. Biologic activity of the implanted allografts remains minimal, but in some cases, spontaneous healing of the graft may occur. We present a report and discussion on two fractures and corrective osteotomy within the implanted allograft that healed with abundant callus without the need for additional surgery. In selected patients, allograft incorporation can be completed to a degree allowing for its biologic activity and spontaneous healing of fractures or osteotomy.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imagePremature partial physeal arrest without the formation of an osseous bar – physeal bar equivalent (PBE) – is uncommon. Four children with a PBE had an infection near the distal femoral physis before the age of 11 months. Some growth was achieved after resection of the PBE in each case. Of two cases diagnosed and treated early, one required only contralateral physeal arrests to achieve limb-length equality at maturity. The other, currently 8 years and 4 months old, has a 1.1-cm limb-length discrepancy 6 years after PBE resection and will require observation until maturity. Of two cases diagnosed and treated late, one required ipsilateral femoral lengthening and contralateral femoral shortening and physeal arrests to treat the limb-length discrepancy and angular deformity. The other, currently 7 years and 1 month old, has a 4.8-cm discrepancy and will need future surgical limb-length equalization. Early recognition and treatment of PBE is required to avoid severe limb-length inequality and angular deformity.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
No abstract available
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageA 16-year-old boy developed left foot pain of unknown cause that was unresponsive to conservative treatment, associated with fever and difficulty walking. He was admitted to our hospital with osteomyelitis of the accessory and body of the navicular bone. Surgery could not be performed because the patient had been diagnosed with Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome. After antibiotic therapy, laboratory abnormalities and pain had resolved. One year after treatment, the patient had returned to his original level of sports activity. Both an accessory navicular and the body of the navicular bone may develop osteomyelitis in immunocompromised patients; early diagnosis is important for prescribing effective conservative treatment.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageIn this retrospective study, we evaluated the efficiency of minimal invasive intralesional extended curettage in the treatment of osteoid osteomas of the extremities in children. Forty-seven children (29 males, 18 females; mean age 10.5 years; range 4–19 years) with osteoid osteoma of the extremities underwent minimal invasive intralesional extended curettage. The exact localization of the nidus was determined preoperatively by thin-section (1–1.5 mm) computed tomography scans, and complete excision of the nidus was performed using a modified burr-down technique. None of the procedures required bone grafting or internal fixation. The median follow-up duration was 59 months (range, 12–136 months). Histopathological confirmation of osteoid osteoma was achieved in all procedures. All patients experienced immediate and complete relief of lesional pain after surgery. Preoperative (a day before surgery) and postoperative (at the time of discharge) mean visual analogue scale scores, questioning the pain derived from osteoid osteoma, were 7.7±1.2 and 0.3±0.6, respectively, confirming complete removal of the nidus. Early motion of the involved extremities and mobilization of the patients were achieved within 2 days. The children resumed normal function within 3 weeks. Postoperative complication or recurrence was not encountered in any of the patients. Even though percutaneous radiofrequency thermoablation is accepted as the treatment of choice for extraspinal osteoid osteomas, this technique requires a regional reference institution. Minimal invasive intralesional extended curettage can be performed in conventional institutions, even those not specialized in bone tumor surgery, by orthopedic surgeons with high success and low morbidity rates, in addition to rapid functional recovery.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageThe aim of this study is to evaluate the complications of humeral lengthening and their associated factors. Fifty-four achondroplastic patients were treated by bilateral humeral lengthening. Our original shoulder sling was sufficient to prevent shoulder dislocation. Pre-existing radial head dislocation was observed in 18 patients. Lengthening was accomplished in all cases without a decrease in the elbow function. Seven humeri fractured after the fixator removal. The risk factors for postoperative fracture were a waiting period of less than 5 days, a healing index less than 25, and the concave shape of the callus. There was no radial nerve palsy.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageWe describe the medical management of an acetabular osteoid osteoma in an 11-year-old girl. There was a 2-year delay until proper diagnosis of the patient’s pathology was made. Accurate localization of the nidus in the subchondral bone, involving the cartilage, is difficult on the basis of plain radiographs. All imaging methods, including computed tomography, MRI, and bone scintigraphy, were used to confirm the diagnosis. We proposed medical treatment to avoid possible severe complications from surgical intervention. At the patient’s latest follow-up visit, after 2 years of medical treatment with NSAIDs, there is complete healing of the osteoid osteoma and there is no sign of recurrence.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageWe reviewed the radiologic and clinical outcomes of hip joints affected by multiple epiphyseal dysplasia in 40 patients. The average patient age was 9.6 years. All patients were followed up for an average of 7.2 years. No patient underwent surgical treatment. The variances of the center-edge angle and femoral head coverage had the greatest tendency to increase with conservative treatment and follow-up (P=0.011 and 0.015, respectively). The acetabular angle and the acetabular depth index at the first visit and the latest follow-up were statistically significantly different (P=0.046 and 0.027, respectively). According to the Stulberg classification, the severity of hip deformity became less severe with age, but this was not statistically significant (P=0.090). Larger improvements in Harris hip scores were identified after conservative treatment (P=0.003). Favorable midterm outcomes were obtained for the treatment of hip deformity in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia patients by conservative treatment.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imagePediatric anxiety during cast room procedures is common and various methods to manage distress may be used. Certified Child Life Specialists (CCLS) are formally trained professionals with proficiency in helping children during taxing events. The utilization of a CCLS has not been well documented in a pediatric orthopedic cast room. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a CCLS in this setting through a prospective randomized trial. 86 children, age range 2–10 years, who underwent cast room procedures were randomized: group I (42 children) had a CCLS present during their procedure. Group II (44 children) did not have a CCLS present during their procedure. Procedures included cast removal/placement, fracture manipulation, and pin removal. We calculated change in heart rate as beats per min (bpm) during various stages of the visit and a subjective behavior score evaluating behaviors, score range −3 to 3. There was no significant difference in the demographics and age between groups. The mean behavior score for group I was 1.78 versus 1.04 in group II (P
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageTrevor’s disease, also known as dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica, is a rare nonhereditary skeletal development disorder that affects epiphyses. This type of dysplastic lesion was first reported by Mouchet and Berlot in 1926 under the name ‘tarsomegaly’. The main aim of this study is to raise awareness of Trevor’s disease among orthopedic surgeons and underline some important aspects of treatment by a detailed presentation of four different possible manifestations of the disease. Four different treatment methods were used on four different patients (three localized in hindfoot ankle region and one classic Trevor’s disease case). Treatment methods, localization of the sides involved, different characteristics of entire lower extremity, asymetry, distal femoral lateral epiphysis involvement, and hip involvement were analyzed thoroughly and the results were compared with those found in the most recent literature. Of our four patients, three were localized (hind foot ankle) cases and one was a classic dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica with hemimelic distribution of the entire lower extremity. We used arthroscopic resection, observation, excision, and temporary hemiepiphysiodesis treatment methods in each of our cases. Clinical follow-up results were reported to be between good and excellent. In sum, our opinion is that the treatment for this condition should be customized according to lesion localization and lesion size. Majority of cases with ankle involvement show good prognosis following excision. Observation is also an alternative in patients who refuse surgery. If an intra-articular lesion is present, the surgeon should perform an arthroscopy for assessment of lesion surface. If the lesion is adapted to the joint curvature, it should be left alone and hemiepiphysiodesis should be considered for correction. The most risky involvements that are related to deformities and limb-length discrepancies are the hip and the knee. This is usually the result of corrective osteotomy targeted at the supracondylar femoral area in immature skeletons. Hemiepiphysiodesis might be a more feasible option in those cases as it provides the surgeon with the choice to remove the staples when necessary.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageUnilateral congenital sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) contracture causing torticollis is well known. Although the unilateral muscular torticollis is quite often recognized, a bilateral contracture of SCM muscle is very rare. A review of the literature showed only three cases of bilateral congenital torticollis reported over the last two decades. We present a case report of a boy with congenital bilateral torticollis with 25 years of follow-up. Bilateral tenotomies of the right SCM were performed and the child was immobilized in Schanz’s cervical orthosis. Three months after operative procedure, the physical examination indicated an increasing contracture of the left SCM with time. A similar operative procedure was applied to the left SCM. The follow-up examinations showed good wound healing and a positive outcome. Bilateral congenital muscular torticollis is a very rare form of muscle skeletal disorder. We describe a surgical treatment of such deformation that ended with a satisfactory result confirmed through a 25-year follow-up.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageAtelosteogenesis type III is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the synthesis of the protein filamin B (FLNB). The mutation in the gene coding for FLNB causes the osteochondrodysplastic features of this disorder. Clinically, osteochondrodysplasia causes unbalanced skeletal maturation and absent or mostly hypoplastic bones, such as the pelvis, vertebrae, ribs, or long bones. In the literature, an orthopedic management for this disorder has not been well described. We report the case and orthopedic management of a 6-year-old female patient with atelosteogenesis type III after 3 years of follow-up.
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imageNo abstract available
Posted: November 1, 2017, 12:00 am
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