Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics - Most Popular Articles

Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics is a leading journal that focuses specifically on traumatic injuries to give you hands-on on coverage of a fast-growing field. You'll get articles that cover everything from the nature of injury to the effects of new drug therapies; everything from recommendations for more effective surgical approaches to the latest laboratory findings. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics is the official journal of the: Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America

imageBackground: This study compared the 5-year outcomes of isolated proximal femoral varus osteotomy (FO) and combined proximal femoral varus and pelvic osteotomy (FPO) for the treatment of hip displacement in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Sweden, focusing on the number of reoperations and residual hip displacement. Methods: The study included 163 children with a 5-year follow-up after FO or FPO in the national Swedish CP surveillance program, CPUP. Descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify whether the age at surgery, sex, Gross Motor Function Classification System level, CP dominant symptom, hip migration percentage (MP), type of surgery (unilateral/bilateral), and history of soft tissue hip surgery were related to the 5-year outcomes after surgery. Failure after hip surgery was defined as a skeletal reoperation involving the hip and/or MP >50%. Results: During the period 2001 to 2017, 163 children (65 girls) underwent 246 femoral and/or pelvic osteotomies (154 FO, 47 bilaterally; 92 FPO, 16 bilaterally) and had a 5-year follow-up; 95 and 74 children had ≥1 FO or FPO as the primary skeletal surgery, respectively. The mean preoperative MP (51%±18% for FO and 59%±17% for FPO, P=0.001) and age at surgery (6.2±2.5 years for FO and 7.3±2.8 years for FPO, P=0.014) differed between procedures. At the 5-year follow-up, 5 hips (5%) had reoperations and 5 hips (5%) had radiological failure among the 92 FPOs, and 33 (21%) had reoperations and 14 (9%) radiological failure among the 154 FOs. The difference in outcome failure rate was significant (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed a lower risk for failure with FPO [hazard ratio (HR)=0.32, 95% CI: 0.15-0.68] compared with FO. A higher preoperative MP increased the risk for outcome failure (HR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.15-1.36 for each 5% increment). Conclusions: FPO had a higher mean preoperative MP but a lower 5-year outcome failure rate compared with FO. A higher preoperative MP was associated with an increased risk of failure. Level of Evidence: Level II—prospective comparative study.
Posted: March 13, 2024, 12:00 am
imageBackground: There are now recognized standards of care published by the British and American Orthopaedic Associations which detail key areas of evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of children with displaced supracondylar humerus fractures. Although many aspects of treatment are covered in these recommendations, both the American and British Orthopaedic Associations do not recommend the exact duration of immobilization postoperatively. Methods: This study retrospectively compared outcomes of operatively managed supracondylar fractures immobilized postoperatively for short immobilization (SI) defined as 28 days or less, with long immobilization (LI) defined as more than 28 days. The outcomes measured were clinical (deformity, range of motion, and pin site infection) and radiologic (loss of position after the removal of K-wires, Baumann’s angle, anterior humeral line, refracture, and signs of osteomyelitis). Demographic data were recorded to evaluate and ensure satisfactory matching of the 2 groups for analysis. Results: The study included 193 pediatric supracondylar fractures over a 4-year period which were treated with manipulation under anesthetic and K-wire fixation. The difference in average time in plaster between the 2 groups was statistically significant (SI: n=27.5 d, SD 1.23; LI: n=43.9 d, SD 15.29, P=0.0001). Data for operative techniques—closed or open reduction (SI: n=66, LI: n=78, P=0.59), and crossed wires (SI: n=37, LI: n=50, P=0.57) between the two groups showed no statistical significance. There was no statistical difference between the groups for the average number of days postoperatively at which wires were taken out (SI: n=28.9 d, SD 5.95, LI: n=30.1 d, SD 5.57, P=0.15), number of pin site infections requiring antibiotic treatment (SI: n=3, LI: n=5, P=0.70), or children from each group who were recorded to have regained full range of motion symmetrical to their contralateral arm (SI: n=79, LI: n=99, P=0.74). Conclusions: Our study therefore suggests that shorter immobilization of these patients (SI group) does not yield a higher rate of complications including refracture and malunion.
Posted: February 8, 2024, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Little is known about the prevalence of intraspinal pathology in children who toe walk, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be part of the diagnostic workup. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of MRI for children who toe walk with a focus on the rate of positive findings and associated neurosurgical interventions performed for children with said MRI findings. Methods: A single-center tertiary hospital database was queried to identify a cohort of 118 subjects with a diagnosis of toe walking who underwent spinal MRI during a 5-year period. Patient and MRI characteristics were summarized and compared between subjects with a major abnormality, minor abnormality, or no abnormality on MRI using multivariable logistic regression. Major MRI abnormalities included those with a clear spinal etiology, such as fatty filum, tethered cord, syrinx, and Chiari malformation, while minor abnormalities had unclear associations with toe walking. Results: The most common primary indications for MRI were failure to improve with conservative treatment, severe contracture, and abnormal reflexes. The prevalence of major MRI abnormalities was 25% (30/118), minor MRI abnormalities was 19% (22/118), and normal MRI was 56% (66/118). Patients with delayed onset of toe walking were significantly more likely to have a major abnormality on MRI (P=0.009). The presence of abnormal reflexes, severe contracture, back pain, bladder incontinence, and failure to improve with conservative treatment were not significantly associated with an increased likelihood of major abnormality on MRI. Twenty-nine (25%) subjects underwent tendon lengthening, and 5 (4%) underwent neurosurgical intervention, the most frequent of which was detethering and sectioning of fatty filum. Conclusions: Spinal MRI in patients who toe walk has a high rate of major positive findings, some of which require neurosurgical intervention. The most significant predictor of intraspinal pathology was the late onset of toe walking after the child had initiated walking. MRI of the spine should be considered by pediatric orthopedic surgeons in patients with toe walking who present late with an abnormal clinical course. Level of Evidence: Level III Retrospective Comparative Study.
Posted: February 2, 2024, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Thoracic anterior vertebral body tethering (TAVBT) is an emerging treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Tether breakage is a known complication of TAVBT with incompletely known incidence. We aim to define the incidence of tether breakage in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who undergo TAVBT. The incidence of tether breakage in TAVBT is hypothesized to be high and increase with time postoperatively. Methods: All patients with right-sided, thoracic curves who underwent TAVBT with at least 2 and up to 3 years of radiographic follow-up were included. Tether breakage between 2 vertebrae was defined a priori as any increase in adjacent screw angle >5 degrees from the minimum over the follow-up period. The presence and timing of tether breakage were noted for each patient. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to calculate expected tether breakage up to 36 months. χ2 analysis was performed to examine the relationship between tether breakage and reoperations. Independent t test was used to compare the average final Cobb angle between cohorts. Results: In total, 208 patients from 10 centers were included in our review. Radiographically identified tether breakage occurred in 75 patients (36%). The initial break occurred at or beyond 24 months in 66 patients (88%). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis estimated the cumulative rate of expected tether breakage to be 19% at 24 months, increasing to 50% at 36 months. Twenty-one patients (28%) with a radiographically identified tether breakage went on to require reoperation, with 9 patients (12%) requiring conversion to posterior spinal fusion. Patients with a radiographically identified tether breakage went on to require conversion to posterior spinal fusion more often than those patients without identified tether breakage (12% vs. 2%; P=0.004). The average major coronal curve angle at final follow-up was significantly larger for patients with radiographically identified tether breakage than for those without tether breakage (31 deg±12 deg vs. 26 deg±12 deg; P=0.002). Conclusions: The incidence of tether breakage in TAVBT is high, and it is expected to occur in 50% of patients by 36 months postoperatively. Level of Evidence: Level IV
Posted: January 22, 2024, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is a relatively common pediatric orthopaedic disorder and a frequent cause of disability in adult populations. The Ponseti method has emerged as the generally preferred for treating children with CTEV. Strict adherence to this technique’s basic principles is critical to achieving favorable outcomes. In 2013, our institution decided that every case of pediatric CTEV would be treated by a single dedicated medical team. The present study aimed to compare the treatment outcomes of children with CTEV treated using the Ponseti method in period I (multiple surgeons) versus those in period II (single dedicated team). Patients and Methods: We included respectively the children with CTEV treated using the Ponseti method in Geneva University Hospitals’ pediatric units from 2007 to 2018. Data on patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and the treatment outcomes were collected. The primary outcome was the number of relapsed feet (treatment failure) after 3 years of follow-up. The 2 periods’ outcomes were compared using χ2 and independent Student t-tests. Run charts were used to report yearly rates of complications, minor and major recurrences, treatment failure, brace noncompliance, and feet that underwent tenotomy. Results: A total of 48 feet (32 patients) and 42 feet (29 patients) in periods I and II were included. The periods showed similar rates for participants’ characteristics. The run charts illustrated the overall improvements in treatment outcomes in period II. A total of 8 relapsed feet (5 patients) were reported, all during period I. Conclusions: Since all the pediatric CTEV patients at our institution began to be treated by a single dedicated medical team, we have observed a decrease in all recurrences and complications and an absence of treatment failure. These results highlight the importance of the continuity of care and strict adherence to the Ponseti method. Level of Evidence: Level—III Retrospective comparative study.
Posted: January 8, 2024, 12:00 am
imageBackground: There is a lack of information about the effects of untreated solitary osteochondroma (SO) on longitudinal growth of the lower extremities in children and adolescents. This study aimed to assess the coronal alignment and length of the lower extremity in patients with SO around the knee and to identify the factors related to the development of deformities. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 111 patients diagnosed with SO around the knee. The patients were classified into 2 groups depending on the location of the SO: 51 in the distal femur and 60 in the proximal tibia. Characteristics of the lesions, such as type, location, size, and distance from the joint line, were determined. Radiographic analysis of the lower limbs included mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, mechanical medial proximal tibial angle, whole-leg length, femoral length, and tibial length. Results: The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 12.3±3.4 years. No statistically significant differences were found between the affected and contralateral sides for mechanical lateral distal femoral angle and mechanical medial proximal tibial angle in either the distal femur or the proximal tibia groups. In patients with femoral lesions, the femoral and whole-leg lengths were significantly shorter on the affected side than on the unaffected side (P<0.001 and 0.002, respectively), and the mean differences were 2.1±3.6 and 2.1±4.4 mm, respectively. Univariate logistic regression analysis did not reveal any factors associated with limb length discrepancy (LLD). In patients with tibial lesions, no statistically significant differences were found in LLD. Conclusions: SOs around the knee did not cause clinically significant deformity of the lower extremity. However, in contrast to proximal tibia lesions, SO in the distal femur was associated with the shortening of the affected limb. Consideration should be given to the development of LLD in skeletally immature children with SO in the distal femur. Level of Evidence: Level III—retrospective comparative study.
Posted: January 5, 2024, 12:00 am
imageObjective: Pediatric proximal humerus fractures (PHFx) are uncommon and makeup ~2% of all pediatric fractures. Traditionally, most cases are treated nonoperatively with closed reduction (CR) or immobilization with no reduction (INR) with excellent outcomes. Indications for CR without fixation remain unclear as immobilization in the position of reduction (shoulder abduction and external rotation) is not practical. We aim to determine the need for CR among adolescents with displaced PHFx treated nonoperatively. Methods: We conducted an IRB-approved prospective multicenter study involving 42 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years, treated for displaced PHFx across 6 institutions between 2018 and 2022. CR was performed under conscious sedation in the emergency department, with data collected during follow-up visits at 6 weeks and 3 months. Radiographic measurements, range of motion, and patient-reported outcomes, including the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Upper Extremity and Physical Function, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, and QuickDash scores, were compared between the INR and CR groups. Results: Among 42 fractures, 23 (55%) were treated with INR and 19 (45%) with CR, followed by placement in a hanging arm cast or sling. Of the cases, 62% were high-energy injuries. Radiographic alignment and range of motion were similar between groups at preoperative, 6 weeks, and 3 months with no significant differences noted. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Upper Extremity, Physical Function, QuickDash, and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index scores at 6 weeks and 3 months showed no significant differences between cohorts. Significant improvement was observed between 6 weeks and 3 months for every patient-reported outcome in both cohorts. Conclusions: For displaced PHFx treated nonoperatively, our data suggests INR has a similar radiographic and clinical outcome when compared with CR. Our results question the necessity of performing CR in this group of patients. Level of Evidence: Level II—therapeutic studies: prospective cohort study.
Posted: December 28, 2023, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) in teenagers is generally avoided. Nevertheless, recent THA procedures in a very young patient show improved functional outcomes and implant survival, resulting in lower revision rates. This review aims to present an overview of the available literature on THA in teenagers and to provide evidence to inform caregivers. Methods: In this systematic review, studies required a primary THA method and a teenage patient population. Studies must report at least one of the following outcome measures: functional outcomes, implant survival, and complications. In addition, demographic and surgical data were collected. Results: Sixteen studies were analyzed, including 2040 patients and 2379 hips, with an average 7.7-year follow-up. The mean patient age was 18 years, with an average revision rate of 11.7%. The overall average relative improvement of the 2 most frequently used patient-reported (functional) outcome measures were 84.3 and 92.3% at the latest follow-up. Prosthesis, or liner loosening, was the cause of revision in 50.2% of the cases. Loosening was the most frequent complication (14.8%), together with prosthesis/liner wear (14.8%). Cementless fixation (70.7%), ceramic-on-ceramic articulation (34.7%), and the posterior surgical approach (82.3%) were the most applied techniques. Conclusions: The functional outcomes after THA in teenagers improved at follow-up. The average revision rate is relatively high, especially in the pre-1995 studies, with post-1995 studies reporting similar revision rates to the adult patient group. Research to further improve implant survival as well as the ease of revisions in teenagers is needed. Level of evidence: Level III—systematic review.
Posted: November 29, 2023, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Lower extremity valgus is a commonly described factor associated with patellofemoral instability (PFI) and, if identified before skeletal maturity, can be treated with guided growth. The prevalence of valgus alignment in the pediatric and adolescent PFI population is largely unknown. Purpose: The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of valgus alignment in adolescent patients presenting with PFI; with secondary assessment of high-grade valgus (zone II or III), coronal asymmetry, and associations of these findings with body mass index (BMI). Study design: A retrospective cohort study. Methods: A total of 279 consecutive patients (349 knees) with a diagnosis of PFI presenting to a single orthopedic pediatric sport medicine surgeon were identified. A retrospective chart review was performed to collect demographic and clinical data, chronologic and bone age, sex, BMI, mechanism of injury, and the presence of osteochondral fracture. Full-length standing hip-to-ankle alignment radiographs were graded for knee alignment mechanical zone utilizing standard linear femoral head center to talar center assessment. In addition, mechanical axis deviation, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle and medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA) were also calculated. Results: Mean patient age was 14.0±2.5 years. There were 162 (58.1%) females and mean BMI was 24.3±6.4. Seventy patients (25.1%) had bilateral PFI. Standing alignment radiographs were available for 81.4% of knees (n=284). Valgus alignment was present in 172 knees with PFI (60.6%). High-grade valgus, defined as zone 2 or greater, was present in 66 knees (23.3%). Overall, 48.9% had asymmetry of coronal alignment (n=139). The mean mechanical lateral distal femoral angle was 85.4±2.8 and the mean MPTA was 88.2±2.6. There was a greater MPTA in female patients (88.8±2.4 vs. 87.5±2.7, P<0.001). A higher BMI (24.87±6.95, P=0.03) was associated with valgus alignment. Conclusions: There is a high (60%) prevalence of lower extremity valgus in adolescent patients presenting with PFI, with nearly 1 in 4 presenting with high-grade valgus. The treatment team should be aware of this association as it may be an important consideration in the pediatric and adolescent PFI populations. Level of Evidence: Level III.
Posted: November 28, 2023, 12:00 am
imageObjective: Surgical treatment of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) has been proven clinically effective in cases that fail to normalize after conservative treatment, but reports on self-reported outcome and quality of life have been scarce. This study aimed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children, adolescents, and young adults undergoing surgical treatment for CMT, comparing HRQoL with clinical outcomes. Methods: We conducted a level 2 prospective observational study on a surgically treated CMT cohort at a single tertiary center. The surgeries focused on releasing all tightness, and the medial head was routinely elongated to preserve cosmetic function. Patients underwent rigorous pre/postoperative assessments and follow-up. A strict postoperative protocol entailing stretching, physiotherapy, and positional exercises was adhered to for a minimum of 6 months. The Cheng and Tang torticollis scoring system and PedsQLTM 4.0 generic core scales were used to evaluate clinical outcome and HRQoL, respectively. Results: The study included 31 patients, averaging 11.4 years. Significant improvements in range of motion, deformities, and overall subjective satisfaction were observed 2 years postoperatively. The Cheng and Tang score improved overall significantly from fair (9.9 points) to excellent (17.9 points) after 2 years (P<0.001). The oldest patients showed less improvement than the youngest ones, especially regarding craniofacial asymmetry (P=0.004). Patient PedsQL scores significantly improved 2 years post-surgery (P=0.040), with no discernable age differences. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated significant improvements in both HRQoL and clinical outcomes after surgical treatment of CMT. The PedsQL score seemed sensitive to the clinical changes.
Posted: July 26, 2023, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Low-energy lateral ankle injuries (Salter-Harris 1 distal fibula, distal fibula avulsion fractures, and radiograph-negative lateral ankle injuries) are common in pediatric patients. Patient-based outcomes for the 2 treatment options, short leg walking cast (CAST) and controlled ankle motion (CAM) boot, are unknown. This study aims to determine differences between 2 treatments of low-energy lateral ankle injuries in pediatric patients. Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing the acute outcomes of CAST and CAM treatment for low-energy lateral ankle injuries in pediatric patients was completed. Patients were evaluated in-person at presentation and 4 weeks for ankle range of motion and Oxford foot and ankle score. A novel survey defining patient and parent satisfaction and time away from school/work was also completed. Treatment complications were documented. Patients were called at 8 weeks postinjury to determine other complications and the final time of return to sport. Mixed effects linear regression models evaluated change over time between the 2 treatment groups. Results: After 60 patients were enrolled, 28 patients in the CAST group and 27 patients in the CAM group completed the study. Males comprised 51% (28), with 38 (69%) patients identifying as Hispanic. The patient’s average age was 11.3±2.9 years and the average body mass index was 23. At the 4-week evaluation, the CAM group had improved range of motion, higher satisfaction scores (5.26 CAM vs. 4.25 CAST, P<0.05), similar pain scores (0.32 CAST vs. 0.41 CAM, P=0.75), and lower complications (0.54/patient CAST vs. 0.04/patient CAM, P<0.0001) than the CAST group. Female patients had improved inversion with CAM treatment than males (P<0.05). Patients over age 12 in the CAST group had significantly decreased plantarflexion at week 4 (P=0.002). Improvement in Oxford scores was similar between the CAST and CAM groups between the initial presentation and 4 weeks, except for increased improvement in CAM group Oxford scores for difficulty running and symptoms with walking/walking. At the 8-week evaluation, patients in the CAST group had a higher rate of continued symptoms than the CAM group (15.4% vs. 0%) Conclusions: CAM boot treatment of low-energy lateral ankle injuries in pediatric patients results in improved results and lower complications than CAST treatment. Level of Evidence: Level I —randomized, controlled trial with a statistically significant difference.
Posted: May 1, 2023, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Congenital spinal anomalies represent a heterogeneous group of spinal deformities, of which only progressive or severe curves warrant surgical management. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the impact of surgery on the health-related quality of life and very limited data exists comparing these outcomes to healthy controls. Methods: A single surgeon series of 67 consecutive children with congenital scoliosis (mean age at surgery 8.0 y, range: 1.0 to 18.3 y, 28 girls) undergoing hemivertebrectomy (n = 34), instrumented spinal fusion (n = 20), or vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib procedure (n = 13) with a mean follow-up of 5.8 years (range: 2 to 13 y). The comparison was made to age and sex-matched healthy controls. Outcome measures included the Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire both pre and postoperatively, radiographic outcomes, and complications. Results: The average major curve correction was significantly better in the hemivertebrectomy (60%) and instrumented spinal fusion (51%) than in the vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib group (24%), respectively (P < 0.001). Complications were noted in 8 of 67 (12%) children, but all patients recovered fully during follow-up. Pain, self-image, and function domains improved numerically from preoperative to final follow-up, but the pain score was the only one with a statistically significant change (P = 0.033). The Scoliosis Research Society pain, self-image, and function domain scores remained at a significantly lower level at the final follow-up than in the healthy controls (P ≤ 0.05), while activity scores improved to a similar level. Conclusions: Surgery for congenital scoliosis improved angular spinal deformities with a reasonable risk of complications. Health-related quality of life outcomes improved from preoperative to final follow-up, but especially pain and function domains remained at a significantly lower level than in the age and sex-matched healthy controls. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic.
Posted: March 30, 2023, 12:00 am
imageIntroduction: Postoperative opioid prescriptions may confer a risk for subsequent opioid use disorders (OUDs). For many children, postoperative analgesia is often the first opioid exposure. The rates of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in pediatric populations are rising. Here, we use an administrative claims database to describe opioid prescription patterns after ACL reconstruction and their effect on subsequent risk of OUD. Methods: Using International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9, ICD-10, and CPT codes, we identified patients, with ages 10 to 18, undergoing primary ACL reconstruction between 2014 and 2016 with minimum 1 year follow-up in the Optum Clinformatics Data Mart, which is a nationally representative administrative claims database. Demographic variables and prescription patterns (in morphine milligram equivalents [MMEs]) were analyzed using univariate tests and multivariable logistic regression to determine any potential association with the appearance of anew an ICD-9 or ICD-10 code for OUD within 1 year of the initial procedure. Results: A total of 4459 cases were included and 29 (0.7%) of these patients were diagnosed with an OUD within 1 year of surgery. Upon univariate analysis, opioid represcriptions within 6 weeks were significantly more common among patients with OUD; 27.6% vs. 9.7% of patients that did not develop a new diagnosis of OUD (P=0.005). Multivariable logistic regression indicated an independent significant relationship between total MMEs initially prescribed and the odds of a subsequent OUD diagnosis: for each additional 100 MMEs prescribed in total, the odds of OUD increased by 13% (P=0.002). Patients with a represcription within 6 weeks of surgery had an average increase in the odds of OUD by 161% (P=0.027). Conclusions: In this cohort of patient ages 10 to 18 undergoing primary isolated ACL reconstruction, we found substantial variability in opiate prescribing patterns and higher initial opioid prescription volume, as well as opioid represcription within 6 weeks were predictive of the subsequent development of OUD. Level of Evidence: Level III.
Posted: January 19, 2023, 12:00 am
imagePhysician extenders and advanced practice providers (APPs) are now common in most adult and pediatric orthopaedic clinics and practices. Their utilization, with physician leadership, can improve patient care, patient satisfaction, and physician satisfaction and work/life balance in addition to having financial benefits. Physician extenders can include scribes, certified athletic trainers, and registered nurses, while APPs include nurse practitioners and physician assistants/associates. Different pediatric orthopaedic practices or divisions within a department might benefit from different physician extenders or APPs based on particular skill sets and licensed abilities. This article will review each of the physician extender and APP health care professionals regarding their training, salaries, background, specific skill sets, and scope of practice. While other physician extenders such as medical assistants, cast technicians, and orthotists/prosthetists have important roles in day-to-day clinical care, they will not be reviewed in this article. In addition, medical trainees, including medical students, residents, fellows, and APP students, have a unique position within some academic clinics but will also not be reviewed in this article. With the many different local, state, and national regulations, a careful understanding of the physician extender and APP roles will help clinicians optimize their ability to improve patient care.
Posted: April 11, 2022, 12:00 am
Effective negotiation is a crucial part of almost every aspect of life. One should never consider conflict a “zero-sum” game; negotiation is necessary. This paper first explains how negotiation is a part of pediatric orthopaedic practice, highlights some of the reasons negotiations break down, and discusses ways to avoid these breakdowns by applying proven techniques.
Posted: April 11, 2022, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Congenital vertebral anomalies are a heterogeneous group of diagnoses, and studies on their epidemiology are sparse. Our aim was to investigate the national prevalence and mortality of these anomalies, and to identify associated anomalies. Methods: We conducted a population-based nationwide register study and identified all cases with congenital vertebral anomalies in the Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations from 1997 to 2016 including live births, stillbirths, and elective terminations of pregnancy because of major fetal anomalies. Cases were categorized based on the recorded diagnoses, associated major anomalies were analyzed, and prevalence and infant mortality were calculated. Results: We identified 255 cases of congenital vertebral anomalies. Of these, 92 (36%) were diagnosed with formation defects, 18 (7.1%) with segmentation defects, and 145 (57%) had mixed vertebral anomalies. Live birth prevalence was 1.89 per 10,000, and total prevalence was 2.20/10,000, with a significantly increasing trend over time (P<0.001). Overall infant mortality was 8.2% (18/219); 3.5% (3/86) in patients with formation defects, 5.6% (1/18) in segmentation defects, and 12.2% (14/115) in mixed vertebral anomalies (P=0.06). Co-occurring anomalies and syndromes were associated with increased mortality, P=0.006. Majority of the cases (82%) were associated with other major anomalies affecting most often the heart, limbs, and digestive system. Conclusions: In conclusion, the prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies is increasing significantly in Finnish registers. Detailed and systematic examination is warranted in this patient population to identify underlying comorbidities as the majority of cases are associated with congenital major anomalies. Level of Evidence: Level III.
Posted: March 17, 2022, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Slip progression after in situ fixation of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) has been reported as occurring in up to 20% of patients. We review SCFE treated with in situ single screw fixation performed at 2 hospitals over a 15-year period to determine the factors associated with slip progression. Methods: This case-control study reviews SCFE treated with in situ single cannulated screw fixation with minimum follow up of 1 year and full closure of the affected physis. Slip progression (failure) was defined as worsening of the Southwick slip angle of 10 or more degrees or revision surgery for symptomatic slip progression. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed comparing success and failure groups for patient characteristics, screw type and position, and radiographic measurements. Results: Ninety three patients with 108 slips met all criteria, with 15 hips (14%) classified as having slip progression (failure). All failures had 3 threads or fewer across the physis. Five hips had 2 threads across the physis, and 4 of the 5 were classified as failures. Lower modified Oxford bone scores were found in the failure group, though the difference was small (0.9, P=0.013). Failure was also associated with partially threaded screws (P=0.001). Failed hips were associated with lower initial Southwick angles (32.8 degrees) than successful hips (40.4 degrees) (P=0.047). In the stepwise model for multivariate regression, 4 factors were identified as significant, with lower initial number of threads (P<0.0001), mild initial Southwick category (P=0.0050), male sex (P=0.0061), and partially threaded screw type (P=0.0116) predicting failure. Conclusion: This study is the largest to date evaluating risk factors for slip progression after SCFE fixation, and the first to consider revision surgery for symptomatic slip progression. For stable SCFE, we demonstrate that 4 threads across the physis with a fully threaded screw of 6.5 mm diameter or greater was sufficient to avoid slip progression. We provide a risk stratification for progression of slip showing that in some cases 3 threads across the physis may be sufficient. Level of Evidence: Level III—case-control study.
Posted: February 24, 2022, 12:00 am
imageBackground: When operative treatment is indicated, tibial spine fractures can be successfully managed with open or arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation (ARIF). The purpose of the study is to evaluate short-term treatment outcomes of tibial spine fractures in patients treated with both open and arthroscopic fracture reduction. Methods: We performed an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved retrospective cohort study of pediatric tibial spine fractures presenting between January 1, 2000 and January 31, 2019 at 10 institutions. Patients were categorized into 2 cohorts based on treatment: ARIF and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Short-term surgical outcomes, the incidence of concomitant injuries, and surgeon demographics were compared between groups. Results: There were 477 patients with tibial spine fractures who met inclusion criteria, 420 of whom (88.1%) were treated with ARIF, while 57 (11.9%) were treated with ORIF. Average follow-up was 1.12 years. Patients treated with ARIF were more likely to have an identified concomitant injury (41.4%) compared with those treated with ORIF (24.6%, P=0.021). Most concomitant injuries (74.5%) were treated with intervention. The most common treatment complications included arthrofibrosis (6.9% in ARIF patients, 7.0% in ORIF patients, P=1.00) and subsequent anterior cruciate ligament injury (2.1% in ARIF patients and 3.5% in ORIF, P=0.86). The rate of short-term complications, return to the operating room, and failure to return to full range of motion were similar between treatment groups. Twenty surgeons with sports subspecialty training completed 85.0% of ARIF cases; the remaining 15.0% were performed by 12 surgeons without additional sports training. The majority (56.1%) of ORIF cases were completed by 14 surgeons without sports subspecialty training. Conclusion: This study demonstrated no difference in outcomes or nonunion following ARIF or ORIF, with a significantly higher rate of concomitant injuries identified in patients treated with ARIF. The majority of identified concomitant injuries were treated with surgical intervention. Extensive surgical evaluation or pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging should be considered in the workup of tibial spine fractures to increase concomitant injury identification. Level of Evidence: Level III.
Posted: January 21, 2022, 12:00 am
imageIntroduction: Identifying risk factors associated with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is essential for early diagnosis and treatment. Breech presentation is a major DDH risk factor, possibly because of crowding of the fetus within the uterus. In multifetal pregnancy, fetuses are generally smaller than singletons, which may obscure the effect of breech presentation on fetal hips. Only a few studies have investigated the occurrence of DDH in multifetal pregnancies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the breech presentation is a major risk factor of DDH in twin pregnancies. Methods: This retrospective study included 491 consecutive live births (after 23+0 weeks gestation) delivered through cesarean section with at least 1 baby with noncephalic presentation in single or twin pregnancies from April 2013 to October 2018. We analyzed the incidence of DDH and its associated factors, including sex, breech, and multifetal pregnancy, with a generalized linear mixed model. Results: The incidence of DDH was 12.5% in singleton with breech presentation, 9.8% in twin-breech presentation, and 0.7% in twin-cephalic presentation. Multivariate analysis showed that singleton-breech presentation (P=0.003), twin-breech presentation (P=0.003), and female sex (P=0.008) were independent risk factors for DDH. Conclusion: Breech presentation is an independent risk factor for DDH in twin pregnancies, although twin pregnancy itself is not an independent risk factor for DDH.
Posted: October 7, 2021, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Distal radius physeal bar with associated growth arrest can occur because of fractures, ischemia, infection, radiation, tumor, blood dyscrasias, and repetitive stress injuries. The age of the patient as well as the size, shape, and location of the bony bridge determines the deformity and associated pathology that will develop. Methods: A search of the English literature was performed using PubMed and multiple search terms to identify manuscripts dealing with the evaluation and treatment of distal radius physeal bars and ulnar overgrowth. Single case reports and level V studies were excluded. Results: Manuscripts evaluating distal radial physeal bars and their management were identified. A growth discrepancy between the radius and ulna can lead to distal radioulnar joint instability, ulnar impaction, and degenerative changes in the carpus and triangular fibrocartilage complex. Advanced imaging aids in the evaluation and mapping of a physeal bar. Treatment options for distal radius physeal bars include observation, bar resection±interposition, epiphysiodeses of the ulna±completion epiphysiodesis of the radius, ulnar shortening osteotomy±diagnostic arthroscopy to manage associated triangular fibrocartilage complex pathology, radius osteotomy, and distraction osteogenesis. Conclusions: Decision-making when presented with a distal radius physeal bar is multifactorial and should incorporate the age and remaining growth potential of the patient, the size and location of the bar, and patient and family expectations.
Posted: June 4, 2021, 12:00 am
imageIntroduction: The transition from pediatric to adolescent fractures can lead to uncertainty on what level of surgical correction is warranted as remodeling is limited in these older patients. Discussion: Adolescent diaphyseal radial shaft fractures present several unique challenges; the radial bow must be restored to preserve forearm rotation and there are several clinical scenarios where plating, even in the skeletally immature child, is strongly recommended and will have more reliable results over flexible intramedullary nails. In addition, judging how much angulation, rotation, and displacement will remodel in the older child can be a challenging decision, even for experienced pediatric orthopaedists. Conclusion: This overview discusses parameters for acceptable alignment in these fractures, when surgical fixation should be considered, and circumstances where plating should be considered over flexible nails.
Posted: June 4, 2021, 12:00 am
imageBackground: While management recommendations for distal radius fractures in both young and skeletally mature patients have been generally well-established, controversy still exists regarding optimal management in adolescent patients approaching skeletal maturity. Thus, the goal of this review is to analyze relevant literature and provide expert recommendations regarding the management of distal radius fractures in this patient population. Methods: A PubMed search was performed to identify literature pertaining to distal radius fractures in adolescent patients, defined as 11 to 14 years in girls and 13 to 15 years in boys. Relevant articles were selected and summarized. Results: Distal radius fractures demonstrate significant potential for remodeling of angular deformity and bayonet apposition, even in patients older than 12 years of age. Rotational forearm range of motion and functional outcomes are acceptable with up to 15 degrees of residual angulation. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning reduces fracture redisplacement but has a high associated complication rate. There is no literature comparing plate versus pin fixation of distal radius fractures in the pediatric population, but in adults plate fixation is associated with higher cost with no improvement in long-term functional outcomes. Conclusions: Remodeling can still be expected to occur in adolescent patients, and even with residual deformity functional outcomes after distal radius fractures are excellent. Up to 15 degrees of residual angulation can be accepted before considering operative management. Smooth pins should be considered over plates as first-line operative management for unstable fractures that fail nonoperative treatment.
Posted: June 4, 2021, 12:00 am
imageIntroduction: Adolescents undergoing pediatric orthopaedic surgery typically experience an uncomplicated postoperative course. However, adolescence represents a unique transition period from pediatric to adult physiology. As a result, the astute pediatric orthopaedic surgeon will be aware of unique medical and social scenarios which are relevant to adolescents during the perioperative course including the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), prevalence of mental health conditions, and rising use of electronic cigarettes or “vaping” to consume nicotine and cannibas. Discussion: Adolescents are at a greater risk of VTE after pediatric orthopaedic surgery. In particular, adolescent females with a family history of blood clotting disorders and those with a change in mobility after surgery should be considered for prophylaxis. The prevalence of adolescent mental health conditions including anxiety, depression, and behavioral issues is increasing in the United States. Higher levels of preoperative anxiety and the presence of mental health pathology are associated with slower recovery, higher levels of postoperative pain, and the increased likelihood for chronic pain. Several quick screening instruments are available to assess adolescents for preoperative anxiety risk, including the Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety or the Amsterdam Perioperative Anxiety Information Scale. Unfortunately, electronic cigarettes have become increasingly popular for the consumption of nicotine and cannabis among adolescents. Preoperative use of combustive cigarettes (nicotine/cannabis) represents perioperative risks for induction/anesthesia, postoperative pain, and analgesia requirements and issues with delayed wound and fracture healing. Conclusions: VTE, underlying mental health conditions, and usage of nicotine and cannabis are clear detriments to the recovery and healing of adolescent patients following orthopaedic surgery. Therefore, standardized screening for adolescents before orthopaedic surgery is indicated to identify perioperative risk factors which have negative impacts on functional outcomes.
Posted: June 4, 2021, 12:00 am
imageIntroduction: Tibial shaft fractures are common injuries in the adolescent age group. Potential complications from the injury or treatment include infection, implant migration, neurovascular injury, compartment syndrome, malunion, or nonunion. Methods: Published literature was reviewed to identify studies which describe the management options, complications, and outcome of tibial shaft fractures in adolescents. Results: Acceptable alignment parameters for tibial shaft fractures have been defined. Operative indications include open fractures and other severe soft tissue injuries, vascular injury, compartment syndrome, ipsilateral femoral fractures, and polytrauma. Relative indications for operative treatment are patient/family preference or morbid obesity. Closed reduction and cast immobilization necessitates radiographic observation for loss of reduction over the first 3 weeks. Cast change/wedging or conversion to operative management may be required in 25% to 40%. Flexible nailing provides relative fracture stability while avoiding the proximal tibial physis, but the fracture will still benefit from postoperative immobilization. Rigid nailing provides greater fracture stability and allows early weight bearing but violates the proximal tibial physis. Plate and screw osteosynthesis provide stable anatomic reduction, but there are concerns with delayed union and wound complications related to the dissection. External fixation is an excellent strategy for tibia fractures associated with complex wounds but also requires observation for loss of reduction. Discussion and Conclusions: The majority of adolescent tibia shaft fractures can be successfully managed with closed reduction and cast immobilization. Unstable fractures that have failed cast treatment should be treated operatively. Flexible intramedullary nailing, rigid intramedullary nailing, plate and screw osteosynthesis, and external fixation are acceptable treatment options that may be considered for an individual patient depending upon the clinical scenario.
Posted: June 4, 2021, 12:00 am
imageBackground: The natural history of traumatic glenohumeral dislocation is well-established in young adults, but it is less clear in pediatric patients. We aimed to determine the rate of recurrent instability and medium-term functional outcome following shoulder dislocation in patients aged 14 years or younger. Methods: All patients aged 14 years or younger who sustained a glenohumeral dislocation from 2008 to 2019 presenting to our regional health-board were identified. Patients who had subluxations associated with generalized laxity were excluded. Data was collected regarding further dislocations, stabilization surgery, sporting activity and patient-reported outcomes using the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability (WOSI) Index and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score. Results: Forty-one patients with a radiologically confirmed traumatic glenohumeral dislocation were suitable for study inclusion [mean age at injury 12.3 y (range: 7.2 to 14.0 y), male sex 29 (70.7%), median 7.9 y follow-up]. The incidence rate of pediatric glenohumeral dislocation was 2.5 cases per 100,000 population (aged 0 to 14 y) per year. Recurrent dislocation occurred in 43.9% (n=18/41) at a median time of 14.7 months postinjury (range: 1 to 54 mo). Skeletal maturity was associated with significantly higher proportion of recurrent instability (immature 6/24 vs. mature 12/17, P=0.01). One in 5 patients required surgical intervention for recurrent instability [mean 8 (range: 1 to 14) dislocations before surgery]. Twenty-eight patients had completed outcome questionnaires. The median modified WOSI score was 87.1% [270 (interquartile range: 65 to 795)] and the median Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 3.4 (interquartile range: 0 to 9.7). Recurrent shoulder instability was significantly associated with poorer WOSI score (unstable 71.4% vs. stable 94.3%, 95% confidence interval of the difference 6.2-36.9, P=0.04). Conclusions: Traumatic glenohumeral dislocation in patients aged 14 years or younger occurs rarely but is not a benign event. One in 2 patients experienced recurrent dislocation and 1 in 5 ultimately underwent surgical stabilization. Level of Evidence: Level IV.
Posted: May 18, 2021, 12:00 am
imageIntroduction: The ability for teams to work together in a coordinated manner may be where the greatest improvements in health care occur in the next generation. To perform at the highest level there are several key principles that all teams must have no matter what playing field they are on, including health care. Methods: Several resources were used to identify the challenges we face in health care with respect to the delivery of quality care, improving outcomes and decreasing complications. A search of the lay press and scientific literature was evaluated to identify those key elements that lead to improvements in team performance. In addition, personal observations were accumulated with time and examples of strategies used at home institutions were identified. Results: The teams in our pediatric orthopaedic practices are many and include those in the clinic, the operating room, research, and our administrative office. The Institute of Medicine, in their influential article in 1999, defined the alarming rates of complications/harm occurring in the US health care system. In response, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Department of Defense (DOD) collaborated to create the Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) in 2006. This was implemented in military facilities and later civilian hospital settings with varied success in civilian hospital settings. Discussion: They defined key principles based around team structure, communication, leadership, situation monitoring, and mutual support. Other important foundational attributes of a successful team include identifying the vision of the team, hiring top-talent in the form of hard and soft skills, having open communication, being goal-focused, practicing accountability, and having an organized team. We can look to excellent examples in medicine, business, and sports to see where and how high-functioning teams have existed and to learn from them to implement similar successful teams. Conclusions: Team performance is a function of talented members who share a common vision, who have the opportunity to voice their thoughts/opinions, and have the ability to be accountable to each other. Surgeons need to lead by example, and provide each member of the team an opportunity to contribute in a meaningful way which ultimately will improve the lives of the patients we are honored to care for.
Posted: June 5, 2020, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Annual rankings by US News and World Report are a widely utilized metric by both health care leaders and patients. One longstanding measure is time to treatment of femur shaft fractures. Hospitals able to provide at least 80% of pediatric patients with an operating room start time within 18 hours of admission to the emergency department score better as part of the overall pediatric orthopaedic ranking. Therefore, it is important to determine whether the 18-hour treatment time for pediatric femur shaft fractures is a clinically meaningful metric. Methods: A retrospective review of clinical outcomes of 174 pediatric patients (aged below 16 y) with isolated femur shaft fractures (Injury Severity Score=9) was conducted from 1997 to 2017 at a single level I pediatric trauma center. The 2 comparison groups were patients receiving fracture reduction within 18 hours of emergency department admission (N=87) or >18 hours (N=87). Results: Patient, injury, and surgical characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Both groups had a similar mean age (treatment <18 h=7.5 y; treatment >18 h=8.1 y). Patients who received treatment within 18 hours were more often immobilized postoperatively (70.1% vs. 53.5%; P=0.0362) and had a shorter median hospital length of stay (2 vs. 3 d; P=0.0047). There were no statistically significant differences in any outcomes including surgical site infection, time to weight-bearing (treatment <18 h mean=48.1 d vs. 52.5 d), time to complete radiographic fracture healing (treatment <18 h mean=258.9 d vs. 232.0 d), decreased range of motion, genu varus/valgus, limb length discrepancy, loss of reduction, or persistent pain. Conclusions: Treatment of pediatric femur shaft fractures within 18 hours does not impact clinical outcomes. National quality measures should therefore use evidence-based metrics to help improve the standard of care. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic level III.
Posted: February 28, 2020, 12:00 am
imageIntroduction: Adolescent idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) affects 2% to 3% of the population of which only 0.3% to 0.5% of affected patients will have a curvature of >20 degrees, the curve magnitude at which treatment is generally recommended. For AIS the current natural history data is limited and most of the information comes from a small body of literature from the University of Iowa. Methods: The Iowa natural history studies began as retrospective reviews but beginning in 1976, the cohort was followed prospectively. Outcomes assessed in this group of patients included; mortality, pulmonary function, pregnancy-(effect of pregnancy on scoliosis and the effect of scoliosis on pregnancy), radiographic, curve progression, and osteoarthritis. In addition, validated questionnaires were used to evaluate back pain, pulmonary symptoms, general function, depression, and body image. Results: Patients with untreated AIS can function well as adults, become employed, get married, have children, and grow to become active older adults. Unfortunately, untreated scoliosis may lead to increased back pain and pulmonary symptoms for patients with large thoracic curves. Patients with untreated AIS can also develop substantial deformity, and the cosmetic aspect of this condition cannot be disregarded. Conclusions: The summary findings of this unique lifetime natural history of AIS patients provides patients and parents a solid evidence base upon which to make informed decisions.
Posted: July 1, 2019, 12:00 am
Background: In order to determine whether treatments are effective in the treatment of meniscus tears, it is first necessary to understand the natural history of meniscus tears. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to ascertain the natural history of meniscus tears in children and adolescents. Methods: A search of the Pubmed and Embase databases was performed using the search terms “meniscus tears,” “natural history of meniscus tears,” “knee meniscus,” “discoid meniscus,” and “natural history of discoid meniscus tears.” Results: A total of 2567 articles on meniscus tears, 28 articles on natural history of meniscus tears, 8065 articles on “menisci,” 396 articles on “discoid meniscus,” and only 2 on the “natural history of discoid meniscus” were found. After reviewing the titles of these articles and reviewing the abstracts of 237 articles, it was clear that there was little true long-term natural history data of untreated meniscus tears nor whether treating meniscus tears altered the natural history. Twenty-five articles were chosen as there was some mention of natural history in their studies. Conclusions: There are few long-term data on untreated meniscal tears or discoid meniscus, or tears in children and adolescents. The literature suggests that there is a higher incidence of chondral injury and subsequent osteoarthritis, but there are many confounding variables which are not controlled for in these relatively short-term papers.
Posted: July 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageBackground: The long-term effects of small limb length discrepancies have been poorly documented in the literature. References to low back pain, hip pathology, knee pathology, and foot problems abound in the popular literature. Health care providers frequently recommend the use of lifts for structural and functional limb length discrepancies, yet the natural history of limb length inequality as well as the effectiveness of treatments that may be recommended are obscure. The purpose of this paper is to document and evaluate the literature associated with small limb length discrepancies. Methods: A search of the English literature was carried out using PubMed to identify papers dealing with the effects of limb length discrepancies. Papers reporting only expert opinion or case reports were excluded. Results: Papers dealing with the natural history of limb length discrepancy as well as studies in which gait analysis was performed in patients with limb length discrepancy were identified. Only 10% of the population has exactly equal lower limb lengths. Approximately 90% of the population has a limb length discrepancy <1.0 cm. Hip and knee pathology is present in an increased number of patients with limb length discrepancies over 5 mm. Hip pathology is more often present in the long leg, knee pathology has been reported in various studies to be more common in either the long or short leg. Low back problems seem to be more common on the short side in patients with limb length discrepancies. A number of different compensatory mechanisms for limb length discrepancy have been identified during gait analysis. Conclusions: There seems to be a consensus that limb length discrepancies >2.0 cm are frequently a problem. There is some evidence that limb length discrepancies as little as 5 mm can lead to long-term pathology.
Posted: July 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is defined as the diagnosis of a spinal deformity before the age of 5 years. It can be divided into idiopathic, neuromuscular/syndromic, and congenital etiologies. Methods: The literature on the natural history of EOS was summarized. Results: The natural history varies with the etiology of EOS. Idiopathic curves may benefit from early serial casting. The natural history of neuromuscular and syndromic scoliosis is highly dependent on the natural history of the underlying disorder. Congenital scoliosis has a variable prognosis depending on the location and extent of the congenital malformations. Conclusions: Treatment of children with EOS is customized to the particular disorder. While lack of treatment has been shown to lead to increased mortality, extensive early definitive fusion may lead to thoracic insufficiency. Delaying definitive surgery and the use of growing instrumentation may provide benefit in maintaining pulmonary health. Clinical Relevance: Potential disturbance of growth must be considered in the treatment of young children with scoliosis.
Posted: July 1, 2019, 12:00 am
imageOptimal clinical decision making and surgical management of hip dysplasia in children with cerebral palsy (CP) requires an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology (pathomechanics and pathoanatomy), incidence, and natural history. The incidence of hip dysplasia in children with CP is directly related to the degree of motor impairment. A subluxated or dislocated hip in a child with CP can compromise the quality of life for both the child and their caregivers. The goal of this article is to highlight the events over the last 25 years that have had the greatest impact on the management of hip dysplasia in children with CP. It is my opinion that the 2 most significant advances during this time have been the development of a classification system based upon motor impairment (the Gross Motor Function Classification System), and the development of surveillance programs for hip dysplasia in children with CP. This article will contrast neuromuscular hip dysplasia with developmental dysplasia of the hip. It will be shown how the development and utilization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System has contributed to our understanding of the epidemiology and natural history of hip dysplasia in children with CP, and to the assessment of outcomes following surgical management. The impact of hip surveillance programs on early soft tissue surgeries, skeletal hip reconstructions, and the incidence of hip dislocations and salvage surgeries will be reviewed. Challenges in the implementation of hip surveillance programs in resource poor and decentralized health care delivery systems will be considered, and innovative approaches identified.
Posted: July 1, 2018, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Radiographic surveillance of the hip is vital in the diagnosis and treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in children. The acetabular index (AI) and the acetabular depth ratio (ADR) are radiographic parameters for evaluation of acetabular morphology. Normal reference curves for these parameters that allow for serial evaluation of acetabular development in a manner that is independent of age are necessary and clinically useful. The purpose of this study was (1) to establish normal values of AI and ADR in the normally developing pediatric hip up to age 14, (2) to generate percentile reference curves of both parameters, (3) to determine the extent of correlation between AI and ADR, and (4) to assess intrarater and interrater reliability of AI measurement. Methods: We identified 1734 patients who underwent anterior-posterior pelvic radiography between 2004 and 2014. A total of 1152 patients (age range, 0.15 to 13.97 y; 2304 hips) were identified as radiographically normal in the radiology report, signed by the attending pediatric radiologist on the basis of the absence of structural deformity of the hip and previously established reference values for DDH assessment. A review of the medical records confirmed that patients had no diagnosis of DDH or any other orthopaedic hip pathology. The AI and ADR were measured in all radiographs. Normal values and fully parametric percentile curves were generated from birth to skeletal maturity. Correlation between AI and ADR was assessed using linear regression analysis. Results: Normal AI decreased, and ADR increased, with age. Percentile curves were generated for AI and ADR. Using the provided equations, measured values can be converted to age-appropriate percentile and Z-score. The 2 parameters exhibited strong correlation (Pearson correlation=−0.789, P<0.001). For every unit increase in ADR, AI decreased by 0.94 degrees. Conclusions: We present updated normative values of AI that expand up to age 14, and novel reference values for ADR. The reference curves allow for the easy conversion of measured values to percentile and Z-score. Using the presented method during surveillance of the pathologic hip, change in acetabular development can now be assessed in a manner that is independent of age and the natural development of the acetabulum. Level of Evidence: Level IV—case series.
Posted: March 1, 2018, 12:00 am
imageAlthough cubitus varus has been regarded as a purely cosmetic problem in the pediatric population, symptomatic elbow instability, and ulnar neuropathy from the mechanical axis malalignment have been reported in adults. This overview discusses the biomechanical axis disruption that leads to soft tissue and morphologic bony alterations in the elbow and offers a compelling argument for corrective osteotomy to treat pediatric cubitus varus.
Posted: September 1, 2017, 12:00 am
Patients with arthrogryposis often require anesthesia for surgical procedures. Intubation can be challenging due to lack of visualization. Anesthetic maintenance is fairly routine. Pheripheral blocks are an important adjunct to postoperative pain management.
Posted: July 1, 2017, 12:00 am
imagePediatric ankle injuries are common, especially in athletes; however, the incidence of syndesmosis injuries in children has been scarcely reported. Injuries to the ankle syndesmosis, termed “high ankle sprains,” can affect high-level and recreational athletes and have been related to delayed return to play, persistent pain, and adult injuries have been associated with long-term disability. Syndesmotic injuries do occur in children, especially those who participate in sports that involve cutting and pivoting (football, soccer) or sports with rigid immobilization of the ankle (skiing, hockey). Unstable pediatric syndesmosis injuries requiring surgical fixation are often associated with concomitant fibular fracture in skeletally mature children. Physician vigilance and careful clinical examination coupled with appropriate radiographs can determine the extent of the injury in the majority of circumstances.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageDespite the increasing popularity of operative treatment in adolescent tibia fractures, casting remains a viable first-line treatment. Because the selection bias in published reports does not allow direct comparison between casting and flexible nail treatment of closed pediatric tibia fractures, it is unclear whether flexible nailing offers any advantages over casting. This overview discusses parameters of acceptable alignment, indications, techniques for successful reduction and casting, subsequent inpatient and outpatient management including wedging of casted tibia fractures, expected outcomes, and comparison of casting with flexible nailing. As with any orthopaedic procedure, careful attention to patient selection, indications, and detail facilitates successful cast treatment in this older pediatric population.
Posted: June 1, 2016, 12:00 am
imageDespite advances in patient safety since the landmark Institute of Medicine Report To Err is Human was published, adverse events and medical errors remain a persistent problem throughout health care. Safety experts have examined the practices in high-risk industries that maintain outstanding safety records for strategies to address the problem. Those efforts led to the development of Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS), a patient safety program that incorporates the principles of crew resource management and teamwork successfully used by industry into the health care setting. Evidence supports that the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, that comprise the core of TeamSTEPPS program, can improve safety and outcomes when used by members of the health care team. Successful implementation should assist the transition of health care workers from functioning as individual experts to performing as members of expert teams.
Posted: July 1, 2015, 12:00 am
imageSurgical hip dislocation (SHD) is a versatile approach used to address both intra-articular and extra-articular pathology around the hip joint in both pediatric and adult patients. It allows anterior dislocation of the femoral head for direct visualization of the hip joint while preserving femoral head vascularity and minimizing trauma to the abductor musculature. Previously described indications for SHD include femoroacetabular impingement, deformity resulting from Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, periarticular trauma, benign lesions of the hip joint, and osteochondral lesions. In this review, we will describe current surgical techniques, indications, and clinical outcomes for SHD.
Posted: October 1, 2014, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Much attention has been given to the relationship between various training factors and athletic injuries, but no study has examined the impact of sleep deprivation on injury rates in young athletes. Information about sleep practices was gathered as part of a study designed to correlate various training practices with the risk of injury in adolescent athletes. Methods: Informed consent for participation in an online survey of training practices and a review of injury records was obtained from 160 student athletes at a combined middle/high school (grades 7 to 12) and from their parents. Online surveys were completed by 112 adolescent athletes (70% completion rate), including 54 male and 58 female athletes with a mean age of 15 years (SD=1.5; range, 12 to 18 y). The students’ responses were then correlated with data obtained from a retrospective review of injury records maintained by the school’s athletic department. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that hours of sleep per night and the grade in school were the best independent predictors of injury. Athletes who slept on average <8 hours per night were 1.7 times (95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.0; P=0.04) more likely to have had an injury compared with athletes who slept for ≥8 hours. For each additional grade in school, the athletes were 1.4 times more likely to have had an injury (95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.6; P<0.001). Conclusion: Sleep deprivation and increasing grade in school appear to be associated with injuries in an adolescent athletic population. Encouraging young athletes to get optimal amounts of sleep may help protect them against athletic injuries. Level of Evidence: Level III.
Posted: March 1, 2014, 12:00 am
imageThis article reviews the current best evidence for musculoskeletal interventions in children with ambulatory cerebral palsy (CP). The effectiveness of interventions in CP must first consider what CP and its associated pathophysiology are and take into account the heterogeneity and natural history of CP to put definitions of “effectiveness” into perspective. This article reviews the current standards of the definition and classification of CP, discusses the natural history and specific goals for the management of ambulatory CP, as well as the outcome measures available to measure these goals. The current best evidence of effectiveness is reviewed for specific interventions in children with ambulatory CP including spasticity management with botulinum toxin A injections and selective dorsal rhizotomy; multilevel orthopaedic surgery to address contractures and bony deformity; and the role of gait analysis for surgical decision-making before orthopaedic surgery.
Posted: September 1, 2012, 12:00 am
imageBackground: Supracondylar humerus fractures are widely considered the most common fracture of the elbow in children. Fractures can range from a less severe, nondisplaced type I fracture to a more severe, displaced type III fracture with no cortical contact. Type III fractures can lead to adverse physical, social, and emotional consequences if they are not treated effectively. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons recently carried out a systematic review of the literature to develop a clinical practice guideline. The guidelines provided answers for the following questions regarding the treatment for type III supracondylar fractures (1) which is the preferred treatment for displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus: reduction and casting versus closed reduction and percutaneous pinning; (2) which is the preferred method for fixing displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus: medial (crossed) versus lateral pinning; and lastly, (3) does open reduction cause increased stiffness or have a high rate of complication? The purpose of this paper is to summarize and highlight the major findings from this systematic review. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to locate 1726 relevant articles published from January 1966 to July 29, 2010. Of these, 44 met our criteria for inclusion and were reviewed systematically. Results: On the basis of the results from the systematic review: (1) we suggest closed reduction with pin fixation for patients with displaced (eg, Wilkins type II and III and displaced flexion) pediatric supracondylar fractures of the humerus. (2) The practitioner might use 2 or 3 laterally introduced pins to stabilize the reduction of displaced pediatric supracondylar fractures of the humerus. Considerations of potential harm indicate that the physician might avoid the use of a medial pin. (3) The practitioner might perform open reduction for displaced pediatric supracondylar fractures of the humerus after closed reduction if varus or other malposition of the bone occurs. Conclusions: Clearly, controversy exists regarding the best treatments for pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures. Properly designed randomized controlled trials comparing treatment options are necessary to determine optimal treatments. Level of Evidence: Level II.
Posted: September 1, 2012, 12:00 am
imagePhyseal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula are common and can be seen at any age, although most are seen in the adolescent. An understanding of the unique anatomy of the skeletally immature ankle in relation to the mechanism of injury will help one understand the injury patterns seen in this population. A thorough clinical exam is critical to the diagnosis and treatment of these injuries and the avoidance of potentially catastrophic complications. Nondisplaced physeal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula can be safely treated nonoperatively. Displaced fractures should undergo a gentle reduction with appropriate anesthesia while multiple reduction attempts should be avoided. Gapping of the physis >3 mm after reduction should raise the suspicion of entrapped periosteum that will increase the risk of premature physeal closure. Open reduction of displaced Salter-Harris type III and IV fractures is critical to maintain joint congruity and minimize the risk of physeal arrest.
Posted: June 1, 2012, 12:00 am
imageChildren’s ankle fractures are the second most common growth plate fractures in humans and one of the top 10 reasons for pediatric orthopaedic hospital admissions. Because triplane and Tillaux fractures occur during the period of distal tibial physeal closure, they are considered transitional injuries. The distal tibial physis closes in a unique, asymmetric pattern (middle, then medial, and finally lateral), and it is the portion of the physis that is open at the time of injury that is vulnerable to fracture in this age group. Triplane and Tillaux fractures occur after supination external rotation and compression stress with unpredictable multiplanar fracture patterns. The fracture may appear different on different x-ray projections, making computed tomography mandatory to determine the number of fragments. Because most of these fractures are intra-articular, anatomic or near-anatomic reduction of the joint surface is recommended to minimize future posttraumatic ankle arthritis. Because these fractures occur at the end of growth, they rarely result in growth arrest.
Posted: June 1, 2012, 12:00 am
imageThe majority of pediatric finger fractures can be treated by closed means with expected excellent outcomes. However, a subset of fractures can turn “ugly,” with complications such as growth arrest, malunion, and joint dysfunction if not recognized and treated appropriately. The present paper discusses several fractures in a child’s fingers that can cause substantial problems if not recognized promptly, highlighting important themes in the evaluation and treatment of a child’s injured finger.
Posted: June 1, 2012, 12:00 am
imageLegg-Calve-Perthes disease is a complex pediatric hip disorder with many uncertainties. Various theories on its etiology have been proposed but none have been validated conclusively. Through experimental studies, however, some insight into the pathogenesis of a femoral head deformity after ischemic necrosis has been gained. These studies reveal that mechanical and biological factors contribute to the development of the femoral head deformity. Better understanding of the pathobiology of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease will lead to the development of more effective treatments, which are able to specifically target the pathogenic processes.
Posted: September 1, 2011, 12:00 am
imageSurgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) should be proven to alter the natural history without introducing iatrogenic complications. The risks of surgery should be substantiated by a body of scientific research, which should show a clear superiority of surgery over observation, both in the short term and the long term. The purpose of this review was to conduct a systematic search of the literature to critically evaluate the scientific evidence on the long-term outcomes and complications of surgical intervention for AIS. Our search identified 39 distinct patient populations with a minimum average follow-up of 5 years. No long-term, prospective controlled studies exist to support the hypothesis that surgical intervention for AIS is superior to natural history. Although surgery reliably arrests the progression of deformity, achieves permanent correction, and improves appearance, there is no medical necessity for surgery based on the current body of literature. However, the surgeon must not underestimate the psychological indication that occurs when a patient is no longer able to cope with the deformity.
Posted: January 1, 2011, 12:00 am
imageGrowth in childhood and in puberty has a major influence on the evolution of spinal curvature. The yearly rate of increase in standing height and sitting height, bone age, and Tanner signs are essential parameters. Additionally, biometric measurements must be repeated every six months. Puberty is a turning point. The pubertal diagram is characterized by two phases: the first two years are a phase of acceleration, and the last three years is a phase of decelaration. Thoracic growth is the fourth dimension of the spine. Bone age is an essential parameter. Risser 0 covers two third of the pubertal growth. On the acceleration phase, olecranon evaluation is more precise than the hand. On the deceleration phase, the Risser sign must be completed by the hand maturation. A 30 degree curve at the very beginning of puberty has 100% risk of surgery. Any spinal, if progression is greater than 10 degree per year on the first two years of puberty the surgical risk is 100%.
Posted: January 1, 2011, 12:00 am
imageA small subset of serious injuries to the pediatric elbow, deemed “TRASH” lesions, are easily missed on radiograph because of their benign appearance. These lesions however, represent a group of osteochondral injuries, which if treated insufficiently result in chronic long-term consequences. Epiphyseal separations, a displaced intra-articular medial condyles before ossification of the secondary center, capitellar shear fractures, radial head fractures with radiocapitellar subluxation and osteochondral fractures of the olecranon, radial head or distal humerus with joint incongruity comprise the group of “TRASH lesions”. These injuries are usually seen in children less than 10 years of age who sustain high-energy trauma. The challenge is a prompt diagnosis requiring a high level of suspicion and early additional imaging. Many of these injuries are displaced and unstable requiring anatomic reduction, internal fixation with or without soft tissue repair for further stability. These injuries when diagnosed late, missed completely or treated improperly without aggressive surgical care can result in long-term complications. Surgical reconstruction of the late presenting malunion is difficult.
Posted: March 1, 2010, 12:00 am
imageFractures of the distal radius account for 80 percent of pediatric forearm fractures. The rapid growth of the distal radial physis and the on-going transformation of the metaphysic explain the propensity for fractures in this location and the potential for fracture remodeling. Fractures of the distal ulna are less common and usually occur in conjunction with fractures of the distal radius. In general both injuries can be managed by closed treatment and casting. Indications for skeletal fixation and/or open reduction are discussed. Complications are infrequent but not insignificant and usually treatable with early recognition and appropriate intervention.
Posted: March 1, 2010, 12:00 am

Latest Results for Journal of Children's Orthopaedics

The latest content available from Springer

Abstract

Purpose

Children with cerebral palsy often have musculoskeletal disorders involving the hip. There are several procedures that are commonly used to treat these disorders. Proximal femur prosthetic interposition arthroplasty (PFIA) is an option for non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy who have a painful, spastic dislocated hip. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the results of PFIA by examining treatment outcomes, complications, and overall effects on the child and their caregiver.

Methods

Charts were reviewed over a 5-year period at our institution. The focus of the data collection was pain, range of motion (ROM), and overall clinical outcome. Clinical outcome was graded as excellent, good, fair, and poor. Length of follow-up, presence of heterotopic ossification, femoral prosthesis migration, and information provided by competed caregiver questionnaires were analyzed.

Results

A total of 16 hips in 12 patients met the inclusion criteria. Average age at time of surgery was 12 years 1.2 months. Average follow-up was 40.4 months. Three hips required revision surgery. Average time before revision surgery was 16 months. Overall outcomes were excellent/good for seven hips and fair/poor for nine. Pain outcomes were excellent/good for nine hips and fair/good for seven. ROM outcomes were excellent/good for nine hips and fair/poor for seven. The majority of caregivers surveyed would recommend this procedure.

Conclusion

Clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of PFIA yielded variable results with this cohort of children with regards to pain and range of motion. Despite these varied results, the majority of caregivers were satisfied with the outcome and would recommend PFIA. PFIA is a salvage option for the painful, spastic dislocated hip, but significant evidence to prove its effectiveness over other salvage procedures is lacking. Based on our results, we conclude that PFIA has the ability to benefit children with cerebral palsy with an acceptable risk profile similar to that reported in recent publications.

Level of evidence IV; retrospective case-series.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Unlike external fixators, the use of solid intramedullary lengthening nails is restricted to defined anatomical preconditions, such as an adequate bone length. Furthermore, all deformity corrections except the lengthening procedure have to be implemented intraoperatively and cannot be adjusted postoperatively. Conversely, even complex deformity corrections can be performed using intramedullary devices after a thorough preoperative planning. For preparation of the intramedullary cavity as well as positioning of the lengthening nail according to the preoperative planning, reaming the medullary canal with rigid reamers which don’t follow the line of least resistance is inevitable. However, the application of solid lengthening nails might be limited, especially in children with ongoing epiphyseal growth, although a central perforation of the growth plate was shown to have no adverse effects on the growth potential. In cases with complex or multilevel deformities, an additional osteotomy and locking plate fixation could sometimes be a valuable solution in order to avoid external fixation. The low complication rate as well as the reduced compromising of soft tissues and periosteum render intramedullary lengthening nails the state-of-the-art procedure for limb lengthening in combination with deformity correction in patients who meet the anatomical preconditions.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

Amputations and fitting surgery have a long history in children with limb deficiencies. With the current developments in limb reconstruction and new techniques in prosthetics, the indications for amputation and fitting surgery might have shifted, but still have a very important role in creating high functional performance, optimal participation and quality of life. The purpose of this current concepts article is to give an overview of the indications, dilemmas and technical considerations in the decision-making for amputation and fitting surgery. A special part of this overview is dedicated to the indications, variations and outcomes in rotationplasties.

Methods

The article is based on the experience of a multidisciplinary reconstruction team for children with complex limb deficiencies, as well as research of the literature on the various aspects that cover this multidisciplinary topic.

Results

For those children with a more severe limb deficiency, reconstruction is not always feasible for every patient. In those cases, amputation with prosthetic fitting can lead to a good result. Outcomes in quality of life and function do not significantly differ from the children that had reconstruction. For children with a postaxial deficiency with a femur that is too short for lengthening, and with a stable ankle and foot with good function, rotationplasty offers the best functional outcome. However, the decision-making between the different options will depend on different individual factors.

Conclusions

Amputations and rotationplasties combined with optimal prosthesis fitting in children with more severe limb deficiencies may lead to excellent short- and long-term results. An experienced multidisciplinary team for children with complex limb deficiencies should guide the patient and parents in the decision-making between the different options without or with prosthesis.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

Instability of the knee is a common finding in patients with congenital limb deficiency. The instability can be attributed to soft tissue abnormalities, frontal, sagittal or rotational deformity of the lower limb and bony dysplasia of the patella or of the femoral condyles. In most of the cases, these pathomorphologic changes stay asymptomatic in daily activity. However, instability can appear during deformity correction and bone-lengthening procedures, leading to flexion contracture or subluxation of the knee.

Methods

A review of pediatric orthopaedic literature on different factors of knee instability, state-of-the-art treatment options in congenital limb deficiency and in cases of lengthening-related knee subluxation is presented and the authors’ preferred treatment methods are described.

Results

Leg lengthening and deformity correction in patients with congenital limb deficiencies can be achieved with various techniques, such as guided growth, monolateral or circular external fixation and intramedullary lengthening nails. Radiographic assessment and clinical examination of the knee stability are obligatory to estimate the grade of instability prior to surgical procedures. Preparatory surgery, as well as preventive measures such as bracing, bridging of the knee and intensive physical therapy, can help to avoid subluxation during lengthening in unstable knees.

Conclusions

Adequate surgical techniques, preventive measures and early detection of signs of subluxation can lead to good functional results in patients with congenital limb deficiency.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Objectives

In the last decades, limb lengthening has not been limited to the treatment of patients with dwarfism and deformities resulting from congenital anomalies, trauma, tumor and infections, but, has also been used for aesthetic reasons. Cosmetic lengthening by the Ilizarov method with circular external fixation has been applied to individuals with constitutional short stature who wish to be taller.

Materials and methods

From January 1985 to December 2010, the medical records of 63 patients with constitutional short stature (36 M, 27F; 126 legs) who underwent cosmetic bilateral leg lengthening using a hybrid advanced fixator according to the Ilizarov method, were reviewed, retrospectively. The mean age was 24.8 years, while the mean preoperative height was 152.6 cm. Paley’s criteria were used to evaluate problems, obstacles, and complications from the time of surgery until 1 year after frame’s removal.

Result

The mean lengthening achieved in all patients was 7.2 cm (range: 5–11 cm), with a mean duration of treatment of 9 months and 15 days (range: 7–18 months). The mean follow-up time was 6.14 years (range 1–10).

Conclusion

The cosmetic leg lengthening was helpful to all patients, improving their social capabilities and self-confidence. All patients considered their stature as normal and they reported satisfaction and gratification with important changes in their professional and personal life. Cosmetic leg lengthening may raise some ethical objections and for that reason patients should be well informed about all the risks and complications related to this type of surgery.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

For decades, the classic indication for limb lengthening has been reserved for anisomelia that was expected to reach or exceed 5 cm at maturity. Epiphysiodesis was reserved for discrepancies in the 2–5 cm range. With the increasing sophistication of fixators, including rail, hexapod, and hybrid, complex deformities may be corrected simultaneously while moderate to extreme lengthening is achieved. More recently, iterations of telescoping intramedullary rods have further strengthened our armamentarium. Meanwhile, permanent epiphysiodesis techniques, both open and percutaneous, have yielded to more versatile and reversible tethering of one (angle) or both (length) sides of a physis. While the techniques of guided growth and callotasis seem to be diametrically opposed, they may be used in a tandem or complementary fashion, for the benefit of the patient. If treatment is undertaken during skeletal growth, one must be aware that issues remain regarding the accurate assessment of skeletal maturity and prediction of the ultimate outcome. Therefore, there is potential for over- or undercorrection. Reversible and serial guided growth now enable the surgeon to commence intervention at a comparatively young age, for the purpose of optimizing limb alignment and reducing the ultimate discrepancy. Frame application may be delayed or, in some cases, avoided altogether. With the limb properly aligned at the outset of lengthening, elective use of a telescoping intramedullary nail may now be favored over a frame accordingly.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am
Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

When treating slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), a smooth pin with a hook or a short threaded screw can be used to allow further growth, which could be important to prevent the development of impingement and early arthritis. The purpose of this investigation was to measure growth in three dimensions after fixation of SCFE.

Methods

Sixteen participants with unilateral SCFE, nine girls and seven boys with a median age of 12.0 years (range 8.4–15.7 years), were included. The slipped hip was fixed with a smooth pin with a hook, and the non-slipped hip was prophylactically pinned. At the time of surgery, tantalum markers were installed bilaterally on each side of the growth plate through the drilled hole for the pin. Examination with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) was performed postoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months. The position of the epiphysis in relation to the metaphysis was calculated.

Results

At 12 months, the epiphysis moved caudally, median 0.16 mm and posteriorly 2.28 mm on the slipped side, in comparison to 2.28 cranially and 0.91 mm posteriorly on the non-slipped side, p = 0.003 and p = 0.030, respectively. Both slipped and non-slipped epiphysis moved medially, 1.52 and 1.74 mm, respectively. A marked variation in the movement was noted, especially on the slipped side.

Conclusions

The epiphysis moved in relation to the metaphysis after smooth pin fixation, both on the slipped side and on the prophylactically fixed non-slipped side, implying further growth. The RSA method can be used to understand remodelling after ‘growth-sparing’ fixation of SCFE.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Limb-length discrepancies and extremity deformities are among the most common non-traumatic orthopaedic conditions for which children are hospitalised. There is a need to develop new treatment options for lower-limb length discrepancy in order to ameliorate treatment outcomes, avoid or reduce rates of complication and provide early rehabilitation. The authors report on the basic principles, experimental and clinical data, advantages, problems and complications of a combined technique associating the Ilizarov method and flexible intramedullary nailing (FIN) in limb lengthening and deformity correction in children. They describe features of the use of hydroxyapatite-coated intramedullary nails in patients with certain metabolic bone disorders and in cases where bone consolidation has been compromised. The advantages of bone lengthening using a combined technique (circular fixator plus FIN) are a lower healing index, quicker distraction-consolidation, a reduced rate of septic and bone complications, the ability to correct deformities gradually and the increased stability of bone fragments during the external fixation period and after frame removal.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Pin-tract infection (PTI) is the most commonly expected problem, or even an almost inevitable complication, when using external fixation. Left unteated, PTI will progress unavoidably, lead to mechanical pin loosening, and ultimately cause instability of the external fixator pin–bone construct. Thus, PTI remains a clinical challenge, specifically in cases of limb lengthening or deformity correction. Standardised pin site protocols which encompass an understanding of external fixator biomechanics and meticulous surgical technique during pin and wire insertion, postoperative pin site care and pin removal could limit the incidence of major infections and treatment failures. Here we discuss concepts regarding the epidemiology, physiopathology and microbiology of PTI in paediatric populations, as well as the clinical presentations, diagnosis, classification and treatment of these infections.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

Tibialis anterior tendon transfers (TATT) are commonly performed in young children following Ponseti casting for clubfeet. The classic TATT involves advancing the tendon through a hole drilled in the ossified cuneiform. The aim of this study was to determine if tendons transferred through unossified bones have untoward effects on subsequent bone development.

Method

Twenty-five piglets underwent one of five surgical procedures. An 18-gauge needle was then used to place a tunnel through the bony or cartilaginous portion of the calcaneus (through direct visualization) and isolated slips of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) were placed through the tunnels, as determined by surgical procedure. Radiographic and/or histologic evaluations of the calcaneal apophyses were then performed. A discrete (1–4) and dichotomous “Normal” or “Abnormal” scoring system was developed and its reliability assessed to grade the appearance of the calcanei. Calcaneal appearances following the surgical procedures were then compared with controls. The average load to failure of a subset of transferred tendons was then compared using an MTS machine.

Results

The proposed apophyseal grading system (1–4) demonstrated an intraclass correlational coefficient (ICC) for consistency of 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 < ICC < 0.95] and ICC for agreement of 0.91 (95% CI 0.86 < ICC < 0.95), indicating strong agreement and consistency. Similarly, Fleiss’ kappa for the 1–4 scoring system was found to be 0.67, indicating substantial agreement between reviewers. When the 1–4 system was translated into the dichotomous scheme “Normal” and “Abnormal”, the kappa value increased to 0.94, indicating strong agreement. Forty-six apophyses (13 control and 33 operative) were assessed using this scoring scheme. Apophyseal transfers were significantly more abnormal than controls (p < 0.0001), while no difference in abnormalities was found following tunnel placement alone (p = 1). Mechanical testing of the tendons transferred to bone or through the cartilaginous apophysis demonstrated no significant differences (p = 0.2).

Conclusion

Tendon transfers through unossified bones altered subsequent bone development.

Significance

While the long-term consequence of these structural changes is unknown, these findings suggest that tendon transfers through unossified bones should be avoided and alternative methods of tendon fixation explored.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Background

Reimer’s migration percentage (MP) is the most established radiographic risk factor for hip migration in cerebral palsy (CP), and it assists surgical decision-making. The head–shaft angle (HSA) measures the valgus of the head and neck in relation to the shaft and may also be a useful predictor of hip migration at a young age. This study first defined normal values and investigated whether the head–shaft angle (HSA) is a continuous risk factor for hip migration in CP.

Methods

Three hundred and fifty AP pelvic radiographs of 100 consecutive children comprising the hip surveillance programme in our region were analysed for MP and HSA. Inclusion criteria were children with spastic CP and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels of III–V, along with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. The mean age was 8.8 (range 3–18) years and the mean follow-up time was 7.5 (range 5–10) years. Radiographs of 103 typically developing children (TDC) were selected for the control group. The reliability of the measurements was determined. A random effects analysis was used to assess the relationship between MP and HSA for all data and for MP > 40 %.

Results

The TDC cohort had a mean HSA of 157.7° whilst that for the CP cohort was 161.7°. The value declined with age in both groups but remained consistently higher in the CP group. A random effects analysis considering the longitudinal data showed that there was no significant effect of HSA on MP. Similarly, when excluding CP patients with MP < 40 %, there was no significant effect of HSA on MP.

Conclusions

This study found no correlation between HSA and hip migration in children with CP in this age group. Using the HSA as a routine radiographic measure in the management pathway across childhood does not offer any added value. Early enrolment onto the hip surveillance programme could offer a better prediction of hip migration using the HSA at a very young age.

Level of evidence

II retrospective prognostic study.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

When we lengthen a bone in a child, the parents and the family circle are often obsessed by the amount a lengthening obtained. However, for the surgeon, lengthen a bone is quite pretty easy, but dealing with the joints above and below the lengthening area can be very challenging. Indeed, during the lengthening process, muscles and tendons will be progressively stretched, leading to potential joint contracture or even dislocation. The objective of the surgeon will be to avoid this situation. The first mean at disposal is the physiotherapy in order to help the joints to be more supple and to maintain their range of motion. The second mean is the soft tissue release before the surgery, during the lengthening process, or after the hardware removal when the capacities of physiotherapy are overdone. As a last resort, it can be helpful to bridge the joint to protect it during the lengthening.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Successful deformity correction depends on establishing the aetiology of the deformity. Clinical examination, additional laboratory tests and consultation with other experts may be needed to complete the workup. Imaging studies should include full-length standing X-rays in all relevant planes, and additional imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may add information on bone morphology and growth plates’ anatomy. Based on the data, analysis of the deformity and length differences is performed, followed by prediction of deformities at skeletal maturity. The patients need to be followed up on a regular basis and repeat analysis should be done to improve the accuracy of prediction for final limb length difference. Limb deformity and lengthening correction plans are drawn and updated during follow-up, to achieve straight and equal lower limbs at maturity. Timely surgical procedures are performed using appropriate techniques and the most modern technologies available. These principles are discussed and demonstrated with case examples.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

In paediatric orthopaedics, deformities and discrepancies in length of bones are key problems that commonly need to be addressed in daily practice. An understanding of the physiology behind developing bones is crucial for planning treatment. Modulation of the growing bone can be performed in a number of ways. Here, we discuss the principles and mechanisms behind the techniques. Historically, the first procedures were destructive in their mechanism but reversible techniques were later developed with stapling of the growth plate being the gold standard treatment for decades. It has historically been used for both angular deformities and control of overall bone length. Today, tension band plating has partially overtaken stapling but this technique also carries a risk of complications. The diverging screws in these implants are probably mainly useful for hemiepiphysiodesis. We also discuss new minimally invasive techniques that may become important in future clinical practice.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to evaluate shoulder function following minimally invasive subtotal subscapularis muscle and periarticular capsuloligamentous arthroscopic release in children with Erb’s palsy.

Methods

A prospective study was conducted on 15 consecutive children who underwent subtotal subscapularis muscle and periarticular capsuloligamentous arthroscopic release to treat internal rotation contracture of the shoulder joint after Erb’s palsy. Age at surgery ranged from 24 to 38 months (average 28.3) (2.4 years). All of the patients were assessed clinically and radiologically preoperatively and postoperatively at regular intervals. The Mallet scoring system was used to analyze the results.

Results

The mean external rotation improved from −24° to +46° (p = 0.001) at the last follow-up. Active internal rotation was preserved in all cases. At the final follow-up, there had been no loss of the external rotation gained and no recurrence of internal rotation contracture of the shoulder, and the mean Mallet score (total) had improved from 11 to 17 points (p = 0.001).

Conclusions

In children aged from 1 to 3 years, an arthroscopic release procedure alone may successfully restore function and yield a centered glenohumeral joint, which has a beneficial effect on glenoid remodeling.

Level of evidence

Level IV.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Background

An accessory navicular is generally asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on radiographs. The natural history of an accessory navicular in the pediatric population is largely undescribed.

Methods

The medical charts of 261 pediatric subjects undergoing 2620 annual unilateral radiographs of the foot and ankle (age range 0.25–7 years at enrollment) were reviewed. Radiographs were examined to determine the incidence of accessory navicular, with focus on the age at appearance and, if present, the age at fusion. Skeletal maturity was graded based on ossification pattern of the calcaneal apophysis.

Results

Accessory navicular was identified in 19 subjects (n = 12 males, n = 7 females, p = 0.43), appearing significantly earlier in the female subjects than in the male ones (p = 0.03). Fusion was documented in 42% (n = 8) of subjects, occurring at a mean (±standard deviation) age of 12.5 ± 1.0 years in females and 14.1 ± 2.7 years in males. Skeletal maturity grading demonstrated comparable stages of maturity at the time of fusion between male and female subjects (p = 0.5). Based on an analysis of 160 subjects with serial images extending at least one standard deviation past the mean age of appearance, the overall incidence was 12%.

Conclusion

Our review of pediatric subjects showed that accessory navicular appeared earlier in females than in males. Fusion occurred in 42% of patients at comparable levels of skeletal maturity between the male and female subjects. No significant differences in overall incidence, skeletal maturity, fusion rate, or age of fusion were noted between the male and female subjects.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Purpose

The epidemiology and risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) are still being refined. We investigated the local epidemiology of DDH in order to define incidence, identify risk factors, and refine our policy on selective ultrasound screening.

Methods

With a cohort study design, data were prospectively recorded on all live births in our region from January 1998 to December 2008. We compared data on babies treated for DDH with data for all other children. Crude odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to identify potential risk factors. Logistic regression was then used to control for interactions between variables.

Results

There were 182 children born with DDH (with a total of 245 dysplastic hips) and 37,051 without. The incidence was 4.9 per 1000 live births. Female sex (adjusted OR 7.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6–11.2), breech presentation (adjusted OR 24.3, 95% CI 13.1–44.9), positive family history (adjusted OR 15.9, 95% CI 11.0–22.9) and first or second pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5–2.3) were confirmed as risk factors (p < 0.001). In addition, there was an increased risk with vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 2.7, 1.6–4.5, p < 0.001) and post-maturity (OR 1.7, 1.2–2.4, p < 0.002).

Conclusions

One in 200 children born within our region requires treatment for DDH. Using both established and novel risk factors, we can potentially calculate an individual child’s risk. Our findings may contribute to the debate regarding selective versus universal ultrasound screening.

Level of Evidence

Prognostic Study: Level 1.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am

Abstract

Background

Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a significant and potentially devastating complication following the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The reported rate of AVN following closed reduction for DDH ranges from 4 to 60%, and the resultant influence on hip development remains unclear.

Purpose

A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to evaluate the frequency of AVN after more than 5 years of follow-up in children that underwent closed reduction at younger than 2-years of age for DDH.

Methods

The search strategy was formulated with key-concepts and keywords identified using the patient problem, intervention, comparison and outcome process. Searches were undertaken using Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science up to and including May, 2016 to identify potential studies.

Results

A total of seven papers met the a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria of this review. The overall rate of significant AVN in 441 patients (538 hips) was 10% at a mean length of follow-up of 7.6 years (5–18.8) following closed reduction. This finding can be used to inform the feasibility of future intervention studies, and act as a baseline for which surgeons to compare their results to a ‘standard’.

Posted: December 1, 2016, 12:00 am
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Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B - Current Issue

The journal highlights important recent developments from the world's leading clinical and research institutions. The journal publishes peer-reviewed papers on the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric orthopedic disorders. It is the official journal of IFPOS (International Federation of Paediatric Orthopaedic Societies).

imageStudy design: Systematic review. The purpose of this study was to compare the top 25 articles on pediatric spine surgery by number of citations and Altmetric score. All published articles pertaining to pediatric spine surgery from 2010 to 2021 were assessed for: Altmetric scores, Altmetric score breakdown (e.g. Twitter, News), citation counts, and article topics. The top 25 Altmetric articles and top 25 cited articles were identified. Out of the 50 total articles, only 3 (6.0%) overlapped between the two groups. The top Altmetric articles had averages (mean ± SD) of 167 ± 130 Altmetric score and 66 ± 135 citations, while the top citation articles had averages of 22 ± 45 Altmetric score and 196 ± 114 citations. When evaluating article topics, articles on ‘back pain’ (36% vs. 4%; P = 0.003) and ‘backpacks’ (16% vs. 0%; P = 0.030) were published significantly more in the top Altmetric group, while articles on ‘scoliosis’ (93% vs. 36%; P < 0.001) and ‘growth friendly surgery’ (24% vs. 4%; P = 0.041) were published significantly more in the top citation group. The total number of citations and online mentions for both groups are presented in Table 2. The biggest differences were the top Altmetric score articles receiving greater percentages of Twitter mentions relative to overall mentions (87% vs. 57%). The most socially popular articles focused on back pain and backpacks, and the most cited articles focused on scoliosis and growth-friendly surgery. Twitter had the most mentions of all social media for both the top cited articles and the top Altmetric articles.
Posted: October 9, 2023, 12:00 am
imageWe investigated the prevalence of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) as compared to the general population. We performed a retrospective cohort study utilizing the TriNetX Analytics platform, a federated, aggregated electronic health record (EHR) research network containing national, deidentified EHR data. We queried patients with OI, based on encounter diagnoses. Patients in this group with any occurrence of osteomyelitis or septic arthritis were recorded. A control cohort was established to compare the prevalence in patients without OI. Of 8444 individuals with OI, 433 (5.13%) had encounter diagnoses for osteomyelitis and 61 (0.72%) had encounter diagnoses for septic arthritis. In comparison, of 79 176 436 patients without OI, 352 009 (0.44%) had encounter diagnoses for osteomyelitis, while 106 647 (0.13%) had encounter diagnoses for septic arthritis. The relative risk for osteomyelitis in OI patients was 11.53 (95% CI: 10.52–12.64), while the relative risk for septic arthritis was 5.36 (95% CI: 4.18–6.89). The relative risk for osteomyelitis in pediatric OI patients was 30.55 (95% CI: 24.35–38.28). To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating musculoskeletal infections in patients with OI, as well as the first to report the overall prevalence in the general population. Clinicians may benefit from a high index of suspicion for musculoskeletal infections in OI patients with corresponding symptoms. Further study is warranted to investigate if modifications to conventional diagnostic pathways and criteria are valuable in this population. Level of evidence: Retrospective Cohort Study – Level II
Posted: August 25, 2023, 12:00 am
imageTo investigate the efficacy of cryotherapy in relieving postoperative pain and restoring knee range-of-motion (ROM) after paediatric anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Patients undergoing primary ACLR were randomised into cryotherapy or non-cryotherapy groups. Those receiving cryotherapy were subjected to a standardised icing protocol. Icing schedules were used to assess compliance. Standard postoperative rehabilitation protocol was followed for both groups. Outcome measurements were visual analogue scale at rest and movement and knee ROM. Patients were assessed on postoperative day 1 (POD1), 1, 4 and 6 weeks. Twenty-one out of 42 patients received cryotherapy. Both groups were similar in demographics, surgical technique and use of intraoperative anaesthesia. Patients in the cryotherapy group reported lower overall mean pain scores throughout the study duration at rest (0.61 ± 1.70, 95% CI = 0.23–0.99 vs. 1.06 ± 2.03, 95% CI = 0.60–1.53) and on movement (2.19 ± 2.68, 95% CI = 1.59–2.79 vs. 3.13 ± 2.75, 95% CI = 2.51–3.75; P = 0.032). Knee flexion in the cryotherapy group showed better recovery of knee flexion from week 4 onwards. Improvement of knee flexion from POD1 is statistically significant at week 6 (98.7 ± 19.1°, 95% CI = 89.5–107.9 vs. 65.4 ± 49.9°, 95% CI = 42.7–88.1; P = 0.010) and overall mean (71.2 ± 35.9°, 95% CI = 61.2–81.1 vs. 45.3 ± 55.5°, 95% CI = 30.4–60.2; P = 0.005). The cryotherapy group reported statistically significant better degree of overall mean knee extension (1.2 ± 3.3°, 95% CI = 0.5–2.0 vs. 2.6 ± 4.6°, 95% CI = 1.6–3.7; P = 0.032). The use of cryotherapy in postoperative ACLR recovery in paediatrics is a simple yet effective measure resulting in short-term pain relief and improvement in knee flexion.
Posted: August 25, 2023, 12:00 am
imageStudies are lacking that evaluate early postoperative pain after all-soft-tissue quadriceps tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), particularly in young patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in early postoperative pain between adolescent patients undergoing ACLR with quadriceps tendon versus hamstring autograft. A retrospective review was performed of 60 patients (mean age, 15.6 ± 1.3 years) who underwent ACLR using either quadriceps tendon (n = 31) or hamstring (n = 29) autografts between January 2017 and February 2020. Intraoperative and postoperative milligram morphine equivalents (MMEs), postanesthesia care unit (PACU) length of stay and PACU pain scores were recorded. Pain scores and supplemental oxycodone use were recorded on postoperative days (POD) 1–3. Differences were compared between the two groups. There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, body mass index or concomitant meniscus repairs between the two groups (P > 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in intraoperative MMEs, PACU MMEs or PACU length of stay between groups (P > 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in maximum PACU pain scores (3.7 ± 3.0 vs. 3.8 ± 3.2; P = 0.89). Maximum pain scores on POD 1–3 were similar between groups (P > 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in supplemental oxycodone doses between groups on POD 1–3 (P > 0.05). Adolescent patients undergoing ACLR with quadriceps tendon and hamstring autografts have similar pain levels and opioid use in the early postoperative period.
Posted: August 15, 2023, 12:00 am
imageWe studied whether the two-plate tension band configuration is more prone for intraarticular deformations than the single plate application used for coronal plane deformities (CPD). The study was based on radiological chart review (retrospective cross-sectional) of records of children [15 patients (30 plates) with limb length discrepancies (LLD) and 20 patients (36 plates) with CPD]. Interscrew angle, slope angle, and roof angle were compared in the initial postoperative and final radiographs to determine changes of tibial morphology. The mean patient age and follow up for the LLD and CPD groups respectively were 6.5 years, 39.8 months and 8.1 years, 15.5 months respectively. The interscrew angles widened between initial and final radiographs in the CPD group and for both sides in the LLD group. The initial and final slope angles were not significantly different in both LLD and CPD groups. Similar trend was observed for roof angle in either group. In the intergroup comparisons between LLD and CPD group, the slope angle of medial/lateral operated side in LLD group versus that of the operated side in CPD group matched statistically in the final radiographs. Similarly, the final roof angle in LLD and CPD groups was statistically similar. No significant intraarticular morphological change was demonstrated following tension band plating epiphysiodesis of the proximal tibia for our series involving young children. It was observed neither with the two-plate configuration used for limb length decelerations nor with the single plate application for coronal plane corrections.
Posted: August 7, 2023, 12:00 am
imageAnkle arthritis in paediatric and young adult patients causes significant morbidity; therefore, joint-preserving procedures are preferable. Ankle joint distraction (AJD) is a technique that preserves the native joint. However, only short-term outcomes are reported in paediatric patients. Therefore, this study reports on intermediate-term outcomes in a paediatric cohort. Demographics for all patients who underwent AJD at two centres were prospectively collected. Case records were reviewed retrospectively for complications and further intervention. Mean joint space at baseline and follow-up radiographs were evaluated by two independent observers. All patients were contacted for completion of a Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS). Seven patients received AJD between February 2016 and June 2019. Median age at surgery was 15 years (9.0–24.6 years). Complications included one superficial pin-site infection and one patient death due to complications from juvenile idiopathic arthritis 6.2 years post-operatively. Two patients were converted to fusion, at 12.6 months and 26.2 months following frame removal; one patient underwent spontaneous fusion at 9 months following frame removal. The four patients who continued without further intervention achieved 2.59 mm mean joint space at last follow-up (0.65–5.08 mm) and FAOS of 35–79%. Mean follow-up length was 4.3 years (2.9–6.3 years) with final radiographs at mean 2.6 years. While recognising the limitations of this retrospective review, several patients had significant, sustained improvements in joint space with good clinical outcome. Complications for this procedure are minimal, and it is a potential joint-preserving option for managing end-stage ankle arthritis in young patients.
Posted: August 7, 2023, 12:00 am
imageTo show a modified placement of the navigation reference frame in posterior corrective fusion of spinal deformity with myelomeningocele. This was a retrospective, single-surgeon case series, and IRB-approved study. Six consecutive patients (one male and five females) who were diagnosed with spinal deformity with myelomeningocele underwent posterior corrective fusion surgery from the upper thoracic spine to the pelvis with preoperative computed tomography navigation (pCTN). At the level of the spina bifida, where posterior elements such as the spinous process were missing, the reference frame of the pCTN was placed on the flipped lamina or pedicles, and a pedicle screw (PS) or iliac screw (IS) was inserted. Screw deviation was investigated by using postoperative CT. A total of 55 screws were placed at the spina bifida level and pelvis. Of these, 12 ISs were placed on each side in each case. The screws placed using the pCTN were not reinserted or removed intraoperatively or postoperatively. However, only one PS was found to have perforated the spinal canal on postoperative CT but was left in place because it caused no neurological problem. By modifying the placement of the reference frame, such as placing it on the flipped lamina or pedicles, pCTN could be used even at the levels of the spina bifida, where the posterior elements are missing, to accurately place PSs and various types of ISs.
Posted: July 3, 2023, 12:00 am
imageTo evaluate the outcome of Achilles tenotomy at first cast in neonates with stiff clubfoot undergoing Ponseti’s method of treatment. One hundred forty stiff clubfeet (Dimeglio grades III and IV) scheduled for Ponseti’s method were prospectively randomized into two groups of 70 each: (1) early, tenotomy at first cast; (2) late, tenotomy at fourth to sixth casts (conventional). The procedure was performed under local lidocaine spray in an office setting using a needle. The results were assessed at an average follow-up of 12.4 years. Technical difficulties and short and long-term complications were recorded. At last follow-up, the results were rated excellent, good, fair, and poor in 70, 18, 9, and 3% of patients in the late group, respectively, and 82, 13, 4, and 1% in the early group (P = 0.048). Technical difficulties were encountered in 38% of the late group and 3% in the early group (P < 0.0001). Flattening of the talar dome of mild to moderate severity was found in 16% of the late group and 4% in the early group (P < 0.001). Early Achilles tenotomy seems to give better results than the conventional late tenotomy, with less short and long-term complications. This may be explained by the greater ease to palpate the Achilles tendon on a previously untreated foot, and the less amount of compressive forces across the tibiotalar and subtalar joints produced by early release of the posterior tether.
Posted: July 3, 2023, 12:00 am
imageOsteogenesis imperfecta is an inherited clinically heterogeneous disorder of bone metabolism characterized by bone and skeletal fragility and an increased risk of fractures. Pamidronate infusion was the standard treatment, but zoledronic acid is increasingly used to treat children with osteogenesis imperfecta. We conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous zoledronic acid in the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta in pediatric patients. A systematic review of the published literature was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Eligible articles were clinical trials and observational studies including pediatric patients (<16 years) with osteogenesis imperfecta treated with zoledronic acid. We selected articles published during the 20 past years. The selected languages were English and French. We included articles with a minimum sample size of five patients. Six articles fulfilled the selection criteria. The majority of patients were Chinese (58%). The predominant sex was male (65%), and the age of included patients ranged from 2.5 weeks to 16.8 years. For all patients, zoledronic infusions were administrated intravenously. The zoledronic treatment duration ranged from 1 to 3 years. Densitometry parameters before and after zoledronic treatment were evaluated and showed significant improvement both in lumbar spine-bone mineral density Z-score and femoral neck-bone mineral density Z-scores. A significant decrease in fracture rate has also been noted both in vertebral and nonvertebral fracture incidence. The two most common side effects were fever and flu-like reactions. None of the patients presented severe adverse events. Zoledronic acid appeared to be well-tolerated and effective in the treatment of pediatric osteogenesis imperfecta.
Posted: June 20, 2023, 12:00 am
imageIncreasing evidence demonstrates the advantages of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol; however, few studies have evaluated ERAS in pediatric patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ERAS in pediatric patients with congenital scoliosis. Seventy pediatric patients with congenital scoliosis underwent posterior hemivertebra resection and fusion with pedicle screws and were prospectively randomly assigned to the ERAS group (n = 35) and control group (n = 35). ERAS management comprised 15 elements including a shortened fasting time, optimized anesthesia protocol, and multimodal analgesia. The control group received traditional perioperative management. Clinical outcome was evaluated by hospital stay, surgery-related indicators, diet, pain scores, laboratory tests, and complications. The surgical outcome showed a similar correction rate in the ERAS group (84.0%) and control group (89.0%; P = 0.471). The mean fasting time was significantly shorter in the ERAS group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the ERAS group had significantly shorter mean times to postoperative hospital stay, first anal exhaust and defecation, significantly lower mean pain scores in the first 2 days postoperatively (P < 0.05), and a significantly lower mean interleukin-6 concentration on postoperative day 1 (P < 0.001). The incidence of complications was similar in the ERAS group and control group (P > 0.05). The ERAS protocol is effective and safe for pediatric patients with congenital spinal deformity and may significantly improve the treatment efficacy compared with traditional perioperative management methods.
Posted: June 20, 2023, 12:00 am
imageThe purpose of this study was to estimate monthly and annual trends in youth sports-related injury over the years 2016–2020 using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database to measure the impact of COVID-19 on overall and sport-specific rates of injury. Children and adolescents (0–19 years) presenting to USA emergency departments with sport participation injury from 2016 to 2020 were identified. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed of injury patterns. An interrupted time series analysis was applied to estimate changes in injury trends during COVID-19. Proportional changes in injury characteristics during this period were examined. An estimated 5 078 490 sports-related injuries were identified with an annual incidence of 1406 injuries per 100 000 population. Seasonal peaks in injuries occurred during September and May. About 58% of injuries were associated with contact sports, such as basketball, football, and soccer, and the most common injuries were sprains and strains. After the pandemic onset, there was a statistically significant 59% decrease in national youth sports-related injuries compared with the average estimates for 2016–2019. While the distribution of injury characteristics did not appear to change, the location of injury appeared to shift away from school toward alternative settings. A significant reduction in youth sports-related injuries was identified in 2020 coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic, persisting throughout the rest of the year. No changes in the anatomic or demographic distribution of injuries were identified. This study expands our epidemiologic understanding of youth sports-related injury trends and how they changed following the pandemic onset.
Posted: June 5, 2023, 12:00 am
imageThis study aims to (1) clinically and radiographically characterize a series of unifocal (single-system single-site) and multifocal (single-system multiple-site) langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) lesions in the vertebra and (2) determine the success and recurrence rates with different treatment modalities in a pediatric population at a tertiary children’s hospital. Patients younger than 18 years old with a diagnosis of LCH before 1 June 2021 at our institution were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were a unifocal or multifocal vertebral lesion without systemic disease. Clinical presentations, lesion sites, radiographic findings, treatments, complications, recurrence rates, and length of follow-up were reviewed and recorded. Thirty-nine patients had unifocal (36%) or multifocal (64%) vertebral lesions. 44% of patients had vertebral lesions only. The most common clinical presentation was neck or back pain (51%) and difficulty or inability to ambulate (15%). 70 vertebrae were involved in total; 59% cervical, 62% thoracic, 49% lumbar, and 10% sacral. 88% of multifocal patients underwent chemotherapy compared to 60% of unifocal patients. The recurrence rate in the entire cohort was 10%. The median length of follow-up was 5.2 years (0.6–16.8). Chemotherapy is often utilized as a treatment for vertebral LCH lesions regardless of unifocal or multifocal osseous presentation, with good outcomes and low recurrence rates. However other treatments such as observation only and steroid injections may be a better option with smaller and less widespread lesions due to side effects and length of treatment with chemotherapy. Determination of more invasive treatments including surgical excision or fixation will need to be considered on a case-by-case basis. Level of evidence: IV.
Posted: June 5, 2023, 12:00 am
imageThe Dias-Tachdjian classification is the most commonly used system for the classification of pediatric ankle fractures, but its inter- and intra-observer reliability has not been studied in detail. Also, the impact of the clinician’s experience and expertise on the reliability of this system is unknown. This study aimed: (1) to determine the intra- and inter-observer reliability of the Dias-Tachdjian classification and (2) to investigate the effect of the clinician’s experience and expertise on the reliability of this system. Anteroposterior and lateral ankle radiographs of 56 children (34 male, 22 female) with ankle fractures, aged between 3 and 14 years, with open growth cartilages, were retrospectively identified and included in the study. Each patient radiograph was examined by 10 observers from two different specialties with different levels of clinical experience (two orthopedic surgeons with interest in pediatric orthopedics, three orthopedic surgeons with no interest in pediatric orthopedics, three orthopedic residents, and two radiology specialists) from two different specialties (orthopedics and radiology). All observers were then asked to classify pediatric ankle fractures at 6-week intervals per the Dias-Tachdjian classification system. Overall, intra-observer reliability as substantial to very good (κ = 0.77–0.95, P < 0.01), but inter-observer reliability as fair for both assessments (κ = 0.21, P < 0.01 and κ = 0.20, P < 0.01 for the first and second occasions, respectively). Inter-observer reliability among pediatric orthopedic surgeons as very good (κ = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86–0.94, P < 0.01 and κ = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.71–0.93, P < 0.01 for the first and second occasions, respectively). Orthopedic surgeons with no special interest in pediatric orthopedics demonstrated substantial agreement in the first occasion (κ = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.53–0.72, P < 0.01) but moderate in the second one. Orthopedic residents exhibited moderate levels of agreement in each assessment period (κ = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.47–0.68, P < 0.01 and κ = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.37–0.51, P < 0.01 for the first and second occasion, respectively). Considering that the specialists dealing with pediatric orthopedics show very good consistency for Dias-Tachdjian classification, both within and between observers, consistency in the identification of the ankle fracture models increases as the interest in the field of pediatric orthopedics intensifies.
Posted: May 22, 2023, 12:00 am
imageObjective The objective of this study is to evaluate the functional and radiological results of external fixator application in the treatment of distal tibial metaphyseal diaphyseal junction (MDJ) fractures in children and to analyze differences between stable and unstable fractures. Methods Medical records of children with distal tibial MDJ fracture confirmed by imaging from January 2015 to November 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into stable and unstable groups and parameters, including clinical and imaging data and Tornetta ankle score were compared. Results Twenty-five children, comprising 13 with stable and 12 with unstable fractures, were included in our study. The mean age was 7 years (range, 2–13.1 years), and there were 17 males and 8 females. All children had closed reduction, and the basic clinical data of the two groups were comparable. Stable fractures showed shorter intraoperative fluoroscopy, operation, and fracture healing times than unstable fractures. No significant difference in Tornetta ankle score was observed. Twenty-two patients had excellent ankle score, and three had a good ankle score, for a combined incidence of 100%. Two patients in the stable fracture group and one in the unstable fracture group developed a pin site infection, and one patient with unstable fracture showed a length discrepancy (discrepancy<1 cm). Conclusion External fixator is safe and effective for the treatment of distal tibial MDJ fractures, whether the fracture is stable or not. It has the advantages of minimally invasive, excellent ankle function score, few major complications, needless auxiliary cast fixation, and early functional exercise and weight bearing. Level of evidence Level IV.
Posted: April 11, 2023, 12:00 am
imageThe purpose of this study was to compare outcomes and management of patients with buckle fractures of the proximal tibia treated with either a knee immobilizer or a long leg cast (LLC). A retrospective review was performed of pediatric patients with a buckle fracture of the proximal tibia over a 5-year period. Two cohorts were included, those treated with a LLC versus a removable knee immobilizer. Data collected included immobilization type, fracture laterality, length of immobilization, number of clinic visits, fracture displacement, and complications. Differences in complications and management between the cohorts were evaluated. In total, 224 patients met inclusion criteria (58% female, mean age 3.1 years ± 1.7 years). Of these patients, 187 patients (83.5%) were treated with a LLC. No patients in either group were found to have interval fracture displacement during treatment. Seven patients (3.1%) demonstrated skin complications, all in the LLC cohort. Mean length of immobilization was shorter for those treated in a knee immobilizer at 25.9 days versus 27.9 days for the LLC cohort (P = 0.024). Total number of clinic visits was also less at 2.2 (SD ± 0.4 days) for the knee immobilizer and 2.6 (SD ± 0.7 days) for the LLC (P = 0.001) cohorts. Pediatric patients with proximal tibial buckle fractures can be safely managed with a knee immobilizer. This treatment method is associated with a shorter duration of immobilization and fewer clinic visits without incidence of fracture displacement. In addition, knee immobilizers can lessen skin issues associated with cast immobilization and cast-related office visits. This is a Level III evidence, retrospective comparative study.
Posted: April 5, 2023, 12:00 am
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